|Chapter(1)-1 The Surprise at Honnooji Temple||Chapter(5)-1 Hideyoshi rejoicing|
|Chapter(1)-2 The dawn of the modern world||Chapter(5)-2 Hideyoshi at ecstasy|
|Chapter(5)-3 Hideyoshi at distraction|
|Chapter(2)-1 The marvelous power of foresight|
|Chapter(2)-2 The advance to West||Chapter(6)-1 The High performance of the leader|
|Chapter(2)-3 The Aryan||Chapter(6)-2 The reappearance at Okehazama|
|Chapter(2)-4 The conquest of India and Persia||Chapter(6)-3 The victim, Ottoman Empire|
|Chapter(3)-1 The Japanese history by Floyce||Chapter(7)-1 Constantinople, the navel of the Eurasia|
|Chapter(3)-2 The Europe in the 16th century||Chapter(7)-2 The burst between manic and depressive|
|Chapter(3)-3 The Tennoh System||Chapter(7)-3 The Negro leader Yasuke|
|Chapter(3)-4 The reinforcement of economic power|
|Chapter(8)-1 The moral story|
|Chapter(4)-1 The rage to the European Great Powers||Chapter(8)-2 The sense of Nobunaga$B!G(Bs morality|
|Chapter(4)-2 The Caspian Sea (The sea of Khazal)||At the end|
|Chapter(4)-3 The trap|
Oda Nobunaga could be called the greatest hero in Japanese history.
He received the surprise of the betrayal by one of his vassals, Akechi Mitsuhide, at Honno-ji temple in Kyoto in 1582 and committed suicide.
However, it is evident that Japan's modernization was behind about 300 years with his death.
There is not "if" in history but I dare to say "if". If Nobunaga could have$B!!(Bsucceeded in escaping from Mitsuhide's betrayal.
If he could have survived,$B!!(BJapan might have been modernized more than three centuries earlier and$B!!(Bdeveloped earlier than the European countries.
Moreover, the worldwide$B!!(Btragedy of the colonial imperialism by the European and American Great$B!!(BPowers could be prevented by him.
Now I'll try to write a story on the hypothesis that the worldwide hero, Nobunaga survives and develop reasoning how history would change not only in the world but also in Japan.
It is a fiction but I'll use real names of the historic people because I hope you can experience an eternal romance more realistically.
I would like to write up confidently how Nobunaga could prevent historic tragedies in the lesser powers controlled by the imperialistic country more than 300 years ago and have an influence on realization of peace in the world.
Especially discrimination against black people that originated with slavery in Africa still continues to leave a dark shadow in the world.
If we focus on and understand the way Nobunaga did in his lifetime, there seems to be a lot of clues to how other discriminatory issues all over the world as well as the racial discrimination could be avoided and resolved by Nobunaga.
Chapter(1)-1 The Surprise at Honnooji Temple
Ten years passed since Nobunaga had defeated his strongest rival, Takeda corps and gone up to the capital in Kyoto.
It was $B!F(Bjoraku$B!G(B in Japanese that meant going up to a capital to take over political power from the emperor who lived in the capital of Kyoto and rule it under the name of the emperor.
It was an important ceremony to officially show other feudal lords, $B!F(BDaimyou$B!G(B who the actual ruler in Japan was. During controlling Japan for ten years, Nobunaga changed many traditional rules that had prevented Japan from modernizing its old-fashioned political and religious country system.
He was called an incarnation of a devil because his ideas were so unique that no other contemporary governor could change and break old custom.
These transformations led by him were effected not only modernized government system but also the modern economic style.
1582 must be said as a turning point in modernizing Japan as well as the world.
This story begins before dawn on June 2, 1582 just after Nobunaga survived the attack by Mitsuhide and returned to his castle in Azuchi.
Nobunaga heard from Mori Ranmaru, his secretary that it was the surprise by Mitsuhide. After Mitsuhide marauded Honnoji Temple, Nobunaga was determined to die, saying $B!H(BThere is no help for it$B!I(B and tried to commit suicide. Then, Yasuke stopped him. Yasuke was a black slave presented to Nobunaga as an offering from Louice Floyce.
Nobunaga heard from Floyce the reason why people with black skin were forced to be slavery and then returned Yasuke to Floyce.
$B!H(BI heard that the skin of the people in the European countries where you live is white but I can find Europe is in the northern end on the miniature globe that you gave me,$B!I(B Nobunaga said.
$B!H(BPeople living there far from the equator have fewer hours that they can be blessed with the sunshine than those living near the equator. In physiology the skin of the people receiving a lot of blessings of the sun naturally becomes black. Why are the people getting least blessings more excellent than those with black skin getting a lot more blessings? I am not getting the whole picture. It is not logical but illogical.$B!I(B
Floyce heard this and was astonished to say $B!H(BWhat a superb intelligence you have! You can see through the correlation between the sun and the earth with this miniature globe.$B!I(B
Yasuke heard their conversation and began to idolize Nobunaga.
$B!H(BWhy was not such a person as Nobunaga in the European countries? I will devote my life to him who might be able to liberate all of our Negro all over the world,$B!I(B
$B!H(BI must rescue my lord Nobunaga for anything!$B!I(B Yasuke forgot he was his master, hitting Nobunaga on his head from behind.
Yasuke held him in his arms and instructed Ranmaru to collect Nobunaga$B!G(Bs family including Nobutada, a son of Nobunaga.
Then some women bunched up together, and Nobunaga as well as his family slipped into the bunch and attempted to break through from the front gate.
Although Mitsuhide saw them run out screaming, he let them go without ordering vassals to chase them.
Nobunaga said himself $B!H(BIf I were him, I would not miss them. That is his gentleness,$B!I(B with putting on woman$B!G(Bs clothing, worshipped Mitsuhide on a horse.
At first, Nobunaga developed retaliation against not only Mitsuhide but throughout the country.
Nobunaga knew that Mitsuhide was not so liberal that he could plan such a bold betrayal by himself.
There was usually someone ruling behind. Moreover, he was aware that someone is the Emperor Oogimachi and his followers, court nobles.
He ordered the Emperor eternal banishment.
There had been retired sovereigns, who ordered the emperor to banish to an island, such as Hojo Yoshitoki and Hojo Takatoki of the Shogunate government of Kamakura regency but not the one who ordered eternal banishment that was common in other countries but a taboo in Japan.
After the revenge was accomplished, Nobunaga got started planning to conquer China.
Though Hideyoshi was at the top of Nobunaga$B!G(Bs retainers, he was in another mission from Nobunaga during the attack by Mitsuhide.
He was attacking the Mori clan, the largest governor in the mid-east to make them surrender.
Tokugawa Ieyasu, a partner with Nobunaga was in Sakai City with a few of his retainers during the incident.
He suspected that Mitsuhide would attack him, so he felt to be in danger and decided to flee from Sakai City through Ibuki Mountain. Seven days later, at last, he managed to reach his territory.
When Ieyasu reached his castle, he was reported from his scouts that Nobunaga had survived and made a counterattack against Mitsuhide.
His body was cut off into seven pieces and exposed on the bank of Kamo River.
Hideyoshi saw the event like hell along with Nobunaga.
That was Nobunaga$B!G(Bs style and there had never been any Samurai except him who punished harshly in Japanese history.
However, his way was consequential in other countries and especially in China, every time the dynasty changed places, it was common to kill the whole family including children and women.
Do not miss the point that the way $B!H(BAn eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth$B!I(B is not only Nobunaga$B!G(Bs but rather international.
That harmed his image. Even if he was criticized to be devilish in Japan where the principle that good work will be rewarded and bad work punished was ambiguous, on the contrary, his way was easy to be understood in other countries.
Whether there was Nobunaga or not would have completely changed the passage to proceed for Japan and the evaluation by the international community.
For approximately 150 years leading today from Meiji Era, the beginning of modernization, has there been a politician like Nobunaga?
Even Okubo Toshimichi who founded the modern Japanese government seemed to be a poor imitation to the European countries.
The originality and foresight of Sakamoto Ryoma who could read the flow of the world was not so excellent as Nobunaga$B!G(Bs.
Someone say Nobunaga had a sodomy proclivity because his episode concerning women has hardly been stated.
Of course, he was not just homosexual. He had four sons. It was common in those days that the lords made sodomy partners.
I don$B!G(Bt think that Nobunaga was abnormal on that point.
Though his episode about women have rarely been introduced as much as Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs and Ieyasu$B!G(Bs.
It is possible to say that paying attention to that point is an important element that brings Nobunaga$B!G(Bs real character into relief.
Oichi, Nobunaga$B!G(Bs younger sister and her three princesses were coming to have a big influence on him on the front stage if later history, but that was not historically so remarkable.
I can$B!G(Bt help suspecting some political intention was hidden in the back.
Chapter(1)-2 The dawn of the modern world
One year later Nobunaga founded a new city and a castle in the vacant lot where had used to be Ishiyama Hongan-ji Temple destroyed by him at the incident.
This is what is now Osaka.
He expected that Osaka should become a very important place to make an expansion of his worldwide empire in the future.
Nobunaga welcomed Floyce who was a missionary dispatched far from Portugal as a source of global information that is necessary for his worldwide empire.
The book $B!H(B The Japanese History$B!I(B written by Floyce stated that Nobunaga was the only one Japanese person who could understand the way of thinking of European people and advanced science.
His remarkable intelligence was the capability to completely understand that the earth was round even though the most advanced European people convinced that it was flat at that time.
Nobunaga definitely seemed to be the most appropriate leader in the world not only in the sixteenth century but the twenty-first century.
Floyce met Nobunaga at the penthouse in Azuchi Castle.
Nobunaga asked him to explain European countries that had a high level of army force in particular.
Floyce was from Portugal that, in the 1500s, overwhelmed other countries in Europe in view of navigating technology to across the ocean that enabled him to come to Japan.
The capability of navigation was the most important factor to compete with other countries.
The reason why England would be leading at the 1600s should be owe to Industrial Revolution of epoch-making technology that could build high performance ships.
In the 1500s, however, brave heart was a prerequisite for leading countries.
Spain succeeded Portugal, Holland succeeded Spain and England succeeded Holland.
The Germany and Austria Empire had to play the last fiddle in competing for imperialism.
This was a trigger of the First World War in the beginning of the twentieth century and leading to the Second World War.
Japan had the most advanced mass manufacturing facilities of guns in the 1500s and also the biggest ship made of steel.
It was apparently the most advanced country not only with hardware production but software creativity especially of information system.
He could foresee and predict the change of the world for over five hundreds years.
Floyce played an important role for Nobunaga to let him know the European movement.
After eternal banishment of the Emperor Oogimachi, the successor was primary chosen from the Imperial family but Nobunaga didn't permit the custom.
Nobunaga ordered all Japanese people from Samurai to farmers that there would never be the Emperor, The Tennoh system.
Around over a-thousand-year monarchy system was over.
The first Republican country in the world was born by Nobunaga.
He designated himself as the first president.
However, none of his family member became a president except Nobunaga.
Nobunaga was fifty years old when he became the president, Hideyoshi was three years younger than Nobunaga when he did, and Ieyasu was seven years younger than Hideyoshi.
The glorious Republican Country had started earlier than the European countries with these three presidents.
However without Nobunaga's existence and his radical political action this could not have happened.
Nobunaga prepared to go out of Japan to unify other countries as he did in Japan in the past.
His most principal strategy was to gather as much information about enemy as he could.
He did not find warriors more important to fight bravely than scouts to give him any kind of valuable information.
He distinguished himself by defeating the Imagawa corps by guerrilla tactics only to get the skeleton of the leader, Imagawa Yoshimoto.
He gave the most honorable prize to Yanada Masatuna who gave Nobunaga actual information about Yoshimoto$B!G(Bs position.
Hattori Koheita and Mohri Shinsuke who beat Yoshimoto were given the second prize by Nobunaga.
This meant that Nobunaga could take information for the most important factor in a war.
The twenty-first century shall be an advanced information technology era.
It is a miraculous matter that there was a person who had known that information technology was so important more than four hundred years ago.
Even the European leading countries like Portugal and Spain were still under the monarchy system.
A monarch and nobles shook hands with religious people. They were sharing territories in the country, so farmers could not have their lands.
Before Nobunaga appeared, there was the same system in Japan called "Shouen System." Nobunaga broke it and gave farmers their own lands.
Nobunaga also established a free market system wherein any people could sell and buy at their own risk.
Nobunaga broke the uncountable barriers for the people to freely come and go.
Even now modernized countries themselves particularly like Japan are unable to apply those systems Nobunaga made over four hundreds years ago.
Japan, therefore, wasted more than four hundred years. It is tremendous loss for Japan as well as many conquered and suffered countries by imperialists.
Needless to say, Asian, South American and African black people in particular have been suffering racial distinction and hateful slavery.
Nobunaga tried to change not only Japanese history but also world history.
Now we go back 1582 again.
Chapter(2)-1 The marvelous power of foresight
After completion of constructing a new castle by the side of River Yodo, Nobunaga moved there from Azuchi.
He named it Osaka Castle.
The name of Osaka started at this time.
Hideyoshi moved to Azuchi from Nagahama by the order from Nobunaga, which meant Hideyoshi was a successor of Nobunaga.
Even though Nobunaga had four sons, he nominated Hideyoshi as his successor.
He knew that was a republican system.
However Nobunaga didn't persistently change his idea that the vote system, placing a seigneur in each of the feudal clans, was basic.
Those who had more ability became leaders.
There was a bigger chance for them.
Then he invented a new epoch-making organization and a promotion system.
He changed it into a square-type of organization from a conventional hierarchical$B!!(B(pyramid) type one.
The square-type of organization had four divided work features and a top was situated in the center.
He made four patterns of function or role and he made his position in the center.
The leader had to have the ability of keeping effort and staying consistency in the center.
He realized that under hierarchy top manager could not watch the lower level and middle people report only good news but actual facts to the top.
Whereas an information system was the most important implement for Nobunaga, he made the system that all information would concentrate on him.
Therefore he made the square-type of organization.
In a conventional pyramid-type of organization, there was a seigneur at the top.
A seigneur was at the top, a seneschal class below, a magistrate$B!G(Bs office and common vassals at the bottom, that was a necessary pyramid-type of organization.
The square-type needed just only four features; military affairs, finance, domestic affairs of state and a superintendent officer.
The top of all functions was a seigneur and he had to make all decision.
Nobunaga didn't neglect to see and experience the actual situation from his youth.
He played with sons of farmers when he was a boy because he knew that farmers would become soldiers when the war would break out and that it was impossible to achieve the role of a general without understanding feelings of soldiers.
Once he understood farmer$B!G(Bs feelings, he realized that they didn't have the right qualities of fighting soldiers. As a result he concluded to introduce a hired soldiers system for the first time in Japanese history.
It showed how important it was to know the actual situation of the field.
When he became a lord, he already had a definite plan of a new organization.
Other warring lords, however, still maintained a former style of organization.
Takeda Shingen, Uesugi Kenshin, Tokugawa Ieyasu as well as Imagawa Yoshimoto.
When Nobunaga became a lord in Oda clan, the result of the conquering battle in the whole country was as good as decided.
Nobunaga planned to attack Ming in China via Korea while he was building a system of the new organization.
He had already gathered enough data of Ming$B!G(Bs military power.
The number of Ming$B!G(Bs troops was great.
Nobunaga had wide experience in fighting against a large number of troops.
He already made information-oriented wars as they do today.
Nobunaga must have been so exceptional that he had well acknowledged that even small troops could overwhelm big ones with information, economic power and technology.
He made a decision to advance on Ming, when Nobunaga convinced that his troops had larger number of guns compared with Ming.
Hideyoshi was designated the supreme commander of corps because he was a genius in information strategies. In no time he moved up to the second with much credit of Nobunaga.
In March 1584, some 150,000 troops with 30,000 guns set out in 500 steel ships.
First, Hideyoshi sailed from Izumo harbor, heading for South Korea beyond the Sea of Japan.
It was because Nobunaga planned to set the headquarters in South Korea where he could command Hideyoshi.
Nobunaga installed a precisely encoded beacon system invented by Nobunaga every 11 km.
It took half a day to make horse connections under the conventional communication system to grasp the status of the front 100 km ahead.
An express messenger called Hikyaku would have taken two days.
The latest information reached him within one hour with his beacon system.
The new system consisted of various kinds of signals and was compiled in a manual.
He prepared no less than a hundred kinds of fireworks to change a meaning with a variety of forms and colors of smoke and moreover to lay the 24-hour system.
Nobunaga instructed Hideyoshi in every strategy and tactics to execute steadily.
No sooner Nobunaga made South Korea surrender in a day than built a castle of the commander.
Hideyoshi was waiting for the following direction of Nobunaga after he conquered whole Korea less than a week.
Nobunaga wrote to the Ming$B!G(Bs emperor a letter urging it to surrender before giving his direction of the advance into Ming to Hideyoshi.
This was indeed his specialty, information manipulation that needed a high technique.
The emperor completely fell into a trap.
After he enraged by the provoking letter, he took the lead and rushed into the field where countless devices had laid by Nobunaga.
It took no more than two days to kill the Ming's emperor.
The Ming Dynasty made Nanjing a capital from 1368 to 1421 but it was the great empire that moved the capital to Beijing in 1421.
In 1584 Nobunaga destroyed that Ming Empire within only two days.
Nobunaga saw through the respect that the ruling system of the successive Chinese dynasties including Ming was similar to one of the Imagawa clan.
The power could not be shown at all even if it was millions of soldiers$B!G(B, once an emperor was killed.
The public in Ming was frightened by the massacre in coming days.
It was a custom when the dynasty in China changed.
However Nobunaga had issued a direction that was severe for all the troops when advanced on Beijing, the capital of Ming.
$B!F(BNo slaughter, marauding, rape toward the public in Ming$B!G(B
This was Nobunaga's way.
They welcomed the invasion by Nobunaga.
The people of the Takeda clan was reported to have said that they never welcomed the clan even if it was Takeda Shingen when the clan was destroyed by Nobunaga.$B!!(B
Farmers hated fights as Nobunaga expected.
They were forced to go to war soon after a busy season for farmers.
Nobunaga needed no farmers for battles because Nobunaga had hired soldiers.
There was no other thing that was fortunate for farmers.
The people of the Takeda clan had been waiting for Nobunaga to come to rule there.
The warrior was only Nobunaga who was welcomed by the public.
Even Hideyoshi and Ieyasu were thinking of themselves and their families.
As recorded in history, Ieyasu aimed at founding a country without war. I wonder it was for the people but himself. This must be a little more verified. Going back to the three-hundred-year Tokugawa period after that, I cannot help thinking that they just hoped the peace and security of only their families.
It is possible to assert that Nobunaga's death was a big loss for the people of Japan as well as of the world.
Chapter(2)-2 The advance to West
Hideyoshi took 150 thousand soldiers along and entered Yanjing.
They marched in strict order like puppets along the main street to the Emperor's palace.
Two days later Nobunaga went into Yanjing accompanied by several vassals.
Riding on the horseback, he looked so neat that nobody noticed he had fought a war by then.
The Ming's public was surprised to see Nobunaga with dignified appearance.
They had believed Hideyoshi was the leader before Nobunaga appeared in Yanjing.
Hideyoshi also looked great for them, however, they came to be under the impression that Nobunaga was like a god so that they witnessed Hideyoshi in front of Nobunaga behaved like his pet dog.
His continuing innovative political activities rapidly enhanced the feeling of the people toward Nobunaga.
He had made many rules applicable to every people from the upper to the lower, re-founded a new capital and demolished an old palace to construct a capitol.
Nobunaga designated Hideyoshi as the first surveillance personnel in a new state of the republican government, of the public by the public for the public.
Nobunaga ordered Hideyoshi to train the Chinese people to govern by themselves within two years and to leave there as soon as he could.
Hideysohi perfectly carried out Nobunaga$B!G(Bs orders and got a leading position.
It was only three months that Nobunaga stayed in Yanjing, when he came to know Sino-centrism, the way of thinking that the center of the world is to be China.
Watching the miniature globe, he found no importance in the tiny human society on the earth, much less the centrism. His next plan but China occupied his mind.
Nobunaga invited Floyce to Osaka Castle right after he returned to Osaka.
Floyce lived in Kyoto by permission of Nobunaga, as he believed that Kyoto suited propagation of the Christianity, because there were numbers of Buddhist denominations, their temples and people interested in religions.
Nobunaga hinted Floyce that he was going to advance against Persia from India within two years.
Also he mentioned his intention to unify the area from Asia to Europe in ten years.
The Roman Empire had existed for no less than sixteen centuries that was the longest in history.
Nobunaga recognized the cause well why the Roman Empire had collapsed.
The five wise emperors continued to designate a well-qualified person not their relative as the next emperor when the Roman Empire was prospering most. After all the capability of a leader affects even the fate of a nation.
As for Europe after the Roman Empire collapsed, a variety of countries repeated uniting and parting but at last no powerful empire came up.
Since he grasped this point, $B!H(BNow is a perfect chance for me!$B!I(B Nobunaga was convinced.
Floyce explained $B!H(BPortugal and Spain are now leading in Western countries but they should be falling in the near future. And the countries will face radical changes because the Renaissance was born in Florence, Italy to spread all over the European countries,$B!I(B he continued, $B!H(BDue to the development of industrial technology, England will be soon or later the top in Europe and lead them.$B!I(B (Remarks: Even though the actual Industrial Revolution happened and steam engines - mentioned later - were invented in the eighteenth century, the author made them in the sixteenth century in order to be contemporary with Nobunaga.)
$B!H(BWhat is the most advanced technology?$B!I(B He asked.
$B!H(BA steam locomotive was invented by Stevenson England. It is the best and the most innovative technology,$B!I(B he replied.
Nobunaga instantly understood the mechanism of the power of steam that is generated when water boils.
His high intelligence astonished Floyce.
In no time, Nobunaga planned to build a steam ship.
Although Floyce told him that it already existed in Europe, Nobunaga expected to build more unique one.
Floyce never imagined that the ship would have a crucial effect on upcoming final battle between Nobunaga Japan and European countries especially England.
In 1585 Nobunaga drew up a concrete strategy to invade India.
His troops would land in Calcutta across the Indian Sea and on the way Chinese army would join in the ships.
He would leave Japan, taking only crew to operate the 1000 ships with artillery guns and other high-tech weapons.
Nobunaga directed Hideyoshi to procure half a million of Chinese soldiers to join in Shanghai.
Nobunaga planned to load a pile of gold onto the ships to buy troops and goods necessary for the war against India and Persia from China.
Japan was called $B!H(BZipang, the country of gold$B!I(B because it was abundant in gold in those times.
Floyce was surprised to learn Nobunaga$B!G(Bs strategy and regarded it as a perfect one.
From 1584 Nobunaga began to build steel ships in Izumo where there was the largest iron mine and to manufacture a great number of guns in Sakai, the largest gun-producing district in the world at the time.
The name of "Teppouchou" means a gun city and it still remained near Yamato River.
Floyce stated in his book "The Japanese History" that he had never met a man of shrewd foresight and courage such as Nobunaga.
Nobunaga was kind of spiritually enlightened as he danced by himself singing a song, Atusmori at every time when he began to fight.
The song says, "Human life is only fifty years. Walking around on the earth, all the things happening seem dream. Everything will disappear after all."
Nobunaga was fifty-two years old then and he thought the present time in his life was a surplus. Floyce mentioned.
The essence of leadership seems to have something to do with a principle of fatalism of Nobunaga.
The Samurais especially the leader in the warlike ages had destiny to face death.
It is the same as a boss in the society of monkeys.
If the enemy attacks, he stood in his way himself to show his leadership first, then everyone admitted that he was the boss.
Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs arts of personnel management are not just useful but set a bad example for corporate leaders today.
Those of Ieyasu, facing the mighty Takeda clan, who got frightened to shit and fell of his horse to escape are out of question.
Ieyasu could not have been taken as Imagawa's hostage if he had had such foresight and nerve as Nobunaga$B!G(Bs in the battle in Okehazama.
Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu can be nominated as the three great commanders in the Age of Civil Wars, however, Nobunaga cut the most prominent figure.
Chapter(2)-3 The Aryan
Nobunaga already decided that the next target would be India and Persia.
India and Persia with different histories was the ancestor of the modern European countries and originally lived Aryans.
Originated from the same race, they inevitably had similar culture.
Nobunaga was thinking of invading India and Persia at a stretch counting on the point.
Hideyoshi reported to Nobunaga that 500 thousand troops could be prepared in Shanghai by November of the year.
Nobunaga would have to land in India from December to January of the next year.
India needed to have been conquered beforehand by March because of the climate of India.
Nobunaga recognized that much more hardships would lie heavily on warriors in April, an excessively hot and rainy season by the tropical monsoon.
Each of his plans was minute and precisely practical.
There were three silk roads, across Indian Ocean and in the north and in the center of India, that he had been studied. The roads on land leaded to China.
His troops would advance along the roads into Agra, the capital of India of those days so that they could attack the enemy on the both sides, land and the sea.
Nobunaga named this army a chained corps.
Since warriors were always facing death, the terrible tension and heavy pressure seized their mind and body.
So Nobunaga never made his warriors continuously pit.
All troops who fought in a battle took at least half or a year off when the battle was over, and other corps went to next war.
The soldiers, therefore, could battle on in a condition that physical strength and mettle were always enriched.
His intellect excelled in the psychological tactics that stimulated their hatred for their enemy.
China and India were always causing friction along the border and mutual hatred almost peaked.
Nobunaga was reasoning the state of mind thoroughly. He was good at using their mind and never operated the soldiers who thought it was a wasteful fight.
However only Nobunaga's regulation was to be absolutely obeyed.
Most of the people of the countries invaded by Nobunaga mostly welcomed him.
Nobunaga left Osaka for Shanghai along with 1000 ships on September 3, 1585 so that he could arrive at Shanghai by the end of the month and then have a meeting with Hideyoshi to make the strategy of the invasion of India perfect.
It was already a year and half since Hideyoshi became the observer in China. Meanwhile he educated a new Chinese sovereign elected at the congress in Nanijing.
Xu Wei, the 42-year-old competent official came from Jinan in Shandong province.
Jinan boasts that famous Taishan Mountain.
Wei fully acquired Japanese language within 18 months. Then he was permitted to attend the next conference between Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. Nobunaga gave Wei the throne as the sovereign of China. Then Hideyoshi never interfered in the Chinese government. It was Nobunaga's direction.
Wei was moved with this treatment and swore piety toward Nobunaga after that.
Then he volunteered as the commander of the next invasion of India.
Nobunaga appointed Wei a chief commander in the navy who kept some of 500 thousand soldiers.
Hideyoshi was designated as the counterpart in the army again.
As a result of the conference, Wei would invade with the 500 thousand soldiers in the 1000 warships from Indian Ocean and Hideyoshi would directly invade the capital, Agra along with 50 thousand soldiers of Japan.
This was indeed Nobunaga's intellectual tactics.
Nobunaga stood by in Shanghai until the invasion was succeeded.
Hideyoshi only showed off 50 thousand soldiers to the enemy and never attacked them.
It was the strategy to fully close down 50 km surrounding Calcutta that the troops of Wei attack in a day, and not to leak even a piece of information to Agra.
The population of Calcutta exceeded 10 millions in those times.
It was a shrewd trick that 50 thousand usual-dressed soldiers in a day hiding arms in the bags on horses and cows headed for Agra from Calcutta everyday.
Lost in crowd in India, they were not conspicuous.
It took 20 days from Calcutta to Agra.
It would take 10 days to send 500 thousand soldiers.
The total of 30 days could carry 500 thousands soldiers and arms to Agra.
Taking 30 days into account, Nobunaga ordered the navy of Wei to start up 30 days earlier than the army of Hideyoshi.
This was indeed Nobunaga's new psychological operation.
Although it is said that the Japanese people today lack risk management, he was well on it.
Since they attach importance to risk management, Western countries have been leading the whole world.
Japan is prominent in the manufacturing technique of hardware in the world.
Though in the space development project the U.S is leading farther than Japan.
Japan is also getting behind Western countries in manufacturing aircraft.
The lack of risk management caused the delay.
Back-up equipments of seven steps are equipped with a jumbo jet in case trouble occurs. If one device causes trouble, the other part will work, which repeats seven times.
That can decrease the troubles resulting in horrible accidents to almost zero when there are seven steps.
In regard to the spacecraft Discovery, it is proud of the nearly perfect success rate because of ten-step back-up equipments.
The Japanese, with the mentality of an agricultural tribe who entrusts anything to weather, never have this kind of thinking.
It is a hunting people$B!G(Bs idea after all
Nobunaga had this faculty.
"Not only brave but very careful" "Be like an angel but bold. Be like a devil but minute" They are Nobunaga at his best.
And then an epoch in world history started.
Chapter(2)-4 The conquest of India and Persia
On November 2, 1585, the Hideyoshi army began an invasion on the Indian border.
It would take seven days to reach Agra from the border.
Meanwhile, the Wei navy had attacked Calcutta to be fallen before the Hideyoshi army arrived at the border.
Then Wei was waiting for the order with the beacon from Hideyoshi.
The army was staying about 1000 km away from Calcutta but the beacon system Nobunaga had invented displayed its good performance.
Any information between Hideyoshi and Wei was transmitted no more than 10 hours.
At that time, a distance of 1000 km sounded to be equivalent to months.
Nobunaga had the ability to shorten it to days.
It is similar to Armed Corps with swords and spears versus those with missiles.
The game had been decided completely from the beginning.
Wei had to approach Agra two days after Hideyoshi made a demonstration attack on Agra.
Nobunaga also settled the day, November 30 when Agra would surrender.
The Indian troops, 200 thousand soldiers with swords and spears launched an attack on the Hideyoshi army.
They had confidence in kicking out their enemy because the number of their troops was four times as Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs.
They had never imagined that the 500 thousand Wei troops had been hiding behind Hideyoshi.
The Agra was a strong fortress that was built in 1565 by Akbar, the third great emperor of Mugul.
Nobody, therefore, knew whether they could take the Agra castle by storm even if the army and the navy got together to be overwhelming number of the soldiers.
Nobunaga never played a gamble when he had no conviction to win.
Hideyoshi and Wei had nothing but behave like puppets worked by Nobunaga.
Nobunaga$B!G(Bs gruesome ideas struck awe and fear into them.
Akbar the great emperor of Mugul troops rushed at the Hideyoshi army but no soldier of Hideyoshi showed them the will to fight.
The troops spread out and run around to escape.
The Indian troops were so much puzzled over where and whom they should go and fight against.
When the troops spread out, a cloud of dust rose to get the enemy blinding for a while.
Ten minutes had passed when the cloud disappeared.
Then, what the Indian troops saw was a wall of the weapons and soldiers of Wei.
The Wei surrounded the Indian troops and shot them with tremendous numbers of guns.
It was only one hour to exterminate the Indian 200 thousand corps.
No injuries the Hideyoshi and Wei troops had.
A sweeping victory was Nobunaga's.
This news immediately got around throughout Europe. Particularly as for Shah Abbas - the second-generation Abbas - of the Safabi dynasty in Persia, he was filled with fear that Nobunaga might be approaching to kill him as it was in the midst of transferring the capital from Qazvin to Esfahan.
Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Esfahan to negotiate with Abbas.
Abbas surrendered without fighting. Nobunaga saved his life and admitted their autonomy.
However, he directed Hideyoshi to educate an able surveillant within a year.
In the meantime, Nobunaga instructed Wei to stay in Agra, which was the same way as fixing Hideyoshi in China.
The surveillant of India was Arun Datowani, a representative of more humble class than Sue Dora of surfs under the caste system of India.
However, the highest class, Brahman, the lowest serfs and more humble people became to have equal rights to rule the country.
The thousands years old Caste system was abolished by Nobunaga.
More than one billion Indian people welcomed his heroic achievement.
Nobunaga stayed at Agra for only one week and returned to Japan by ship.
He had tons of things to do in Japan.
When Nobubaga arrived at Osaka, Floyce was on Osaka Port to see Nobunaga.
Nobunaga was very grateful to see Floyce.
Chapter(3)-1 The Japanese history by Floyce
Nobunaga was looking forward to seeing Floyce again.
He could conquer Ming, China; Mugul, India; and Safabi, Persia with little damage because of Floyce$B!G(Bs accurate information.
However, just after he had defeated Persia, Nobunaga turned down not only Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs claim but also Wei$B!G(Bs and ended the first invasion since he regarded Floyce$B!G(Bs information as more important.
The Ottoman Empire was the worst enemy for Nobunaga.
It was the greatest empire built up by Ottoman I in 1291.
Soon after disuniting from the Roman Empire, the Western Roman Empire fell.
The Eastern Roman Empire, however, whose capital was Byzantine lasted until 1453. It was Mehmet II, the Ottoman Turk, who had defeated the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453.
Ruling from Egypt to Algeria in the Northern Africa, all over the Middle East except the inland desert in the Arabian Peninsula, from the Balkan Peninsula to Hungary in Europe, and Iraq in the east, the Ottoman was a great empire.
Suleiman$B!G(Bs death in 1566 triggered slowdown of its force.
In 1369 Timur, a descendant of Genghis Khan built the Timur Empire placing Samarkand as the capital, later occupied Persia and Babylonia, and at last in 1402 beat the Ottoman while Bayajid I, the Ottoman emperor was directing attention to Europe.
Timur showed his great courage and intelligence and was so awesome that he never took back his command he had already given.
Later, however, Timur died of a disease before invading Ming.
Moreover he did not beat Ottoman$B!G(Bs head off.
Hearing Timur$B!G(Bs heroic episode from Floyce, Nobunaga thought Timur might have had a lot in common with himself.
The scheme adopted by Timur who had defeated the Ottoman Empire was attacking Bajajid I from his back to capture and kill him.
This reminded Nobunaga of the battle in Okehazama which shaped his young days.
Having confidence of victory in the fight against the Ottoman which might affect his future, he focused on England which, he thought, should gain power later.
A decisive battle affecting his fate needed considerable preparation but old tactics. Therefore, the first invasion was ended in Persia.
In his book Japanese History Floyce noted, "Nobunaga was not only brave but very careful"
Precisely evaluating Nobunaga is essential for Japan to determine the way to go.
It is the Japanese History that evaluates Nobunaga far more precisely and objectively. Floyce also noted as follows.
$B!H(BHe was tall and slim although he was Japanese. He had a well-trained body, so he must have been temperate. Most of his portraits seem as if he had been nervous, but they have nothing like real Nobunaga. This is because someone anti-Nobunaga must have involved in the portraits.
Actually he looked intrepid with thick beard.
He also had a strong sense of justice and intensive pride.
His pride came from the confidence of his ability. He didn$B!G(Bt judge people from lineage or position at all.
As he himself mentioned in his later life, he had not spared any kind of effort to improve the ability of himself from his youth.
It is due to his justice judgment that he gave his man an important position even though the man was in a low social lank but had high ability.
He didn$B!G(Bt neglect to discipline and judge himself because he wanted to try his real ability, which is why he liked wars.
As he required of his vassals the same effort as he did, those who could come up to his expectations were admired but those who could not were severely treated.
Therefore he had extreme aspects of character; he was full of human warmth and love, or sometimes harshly treated insult toward him the way $B!H(BAn eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.$B!I(B
He got a short sleep to control himself, so his men who were not in a position to get up early in the morning were never well evaluated by all means even if they had another advantage.
He was also extremely temperate in eating and, moreover, he never drank in his view that liquor might cause corruption.
He always made his appearance clean and excluded untidy men thoroughly.
Therefore, when he talked with others, he disliked a circuitous way of speaking and slovenly preface.
He had marvelous intellect and clear judgment.
He trusted himself who could get out of any arduous situations even under the worst of circumstance.
In a way he had the ability to work miracles, however, he believed it was not by the grace of God or Buddha but due to the result of his efforts.
Furthermore, he put his heart and soul into justice and equalitarianism saying the difference of human ability was not owing to their blood, position or circumstances but their efforts.
I was surprised at his strict asceticism even though I am one of Christian missionaries accustomed to asceticism.
He ignored every religion and superstitious habitude, and also despised the worship of every God and Buddha.
Therefore it is said that all of his vassals were amazed to see his attitude and behavior at his father$B!G(Bs funeral.
He was the man of belief giving a firm attitude toward religionists. Some of the existing depraved Buddhists were suppressed and slaughtered, on the other hand, sincerely religious and faithful religionists, regardless of nationality, were protected.
From this standpoint, it is impossible to say definitely that he was the atheist who never feared any God or Buddhah, but just a mysterious person.
He must have been a strict rationalist in other words.
I have never seen such a unique leader or ruler in European countries who is severe himself as well as others and gives good examples by using his initiative.
If he had won the war, he never permitted assaulting, raping and marauding in the defeated, giving some penalties only for the ruler but didn$B!G(Bt demand any responsibility from the people.
There was no case like this not only in Europe but also in Japan in those days.
He executed many policies that could have never been accomplished in European countries.
For example, he put roads in good condition, improved public security and abolished the barrier that collected a toll until then in order to freely come and go.
As a result, during his days, people became able to travel even at night.
This favor was most welcomed by the public.
They were increasingly charmed by him and glad to have him as a seignior.
There also seemed to have been a lot of lords called a great commander in various countries in those days, but the people looked forward to receiving him as their lord.
Even if he was the incarnation of devil for the priests and other lords, he was the best lord for the people.
To have opened a market and made the system of free trading were epoch-making the world had never seen.
Unfortunately he suffered the betrayal of his vassal, but his eyes showed his feeling, during asking me all sorts of situations in Europe, that he would try to go out to the world after Japan to spread his idea.
When thinking so, he was the only one that made me disappoint myself who was, in fact, an accomplice in the colonial policy of my country while professing to propagate Jesus Christ's teachings and rescue people.$B!I(B
I am in doubt to say whether there have existed such a leader or ruler like Nobunaga, in the whole world with over 200 countries from the 20th century through the 21st century, who is restrained and self-controlled.
If Nobunaga lived, how would the after history of the world have proceeded?
Moreover, let's get back to subsequent achievements of Nobunaga.
Chapter(3)-2 The Europe in the 16th century
Floyce told Nobunaga that the Ottoman Empire, after the death of Suleiman I in 1566, had been defeated in the naval battle of Lepanto against Spain and Venice in 1571.
It was 2 years later after the first meeting with Floyce 1569.
Surrounding Vienna in 1529 to oppress the Holy Roman Empire, Suleiman I formed an alliance with France that was fighting against Italy and concluded a kind of antiwar pact $B!F(BCapitulation$B!G(B with the European countries, after accession to the throne at the Topkapi palace in 1520 at the age of 25.
He gave foreigners except the Muslims freedom of politics and commerce in the Ottoman Turkish territory
It was the ancestor of the extraterritorial rights.
When the rush of the European imperialism went through the Asian countries, the strategy the imperialists adopted was the extraterritorial rights on this Capitulation, and then most of the Asian countries were devastated by them.
Nobunaga remembered well Floyce saying that Portugal and Spain would decline in time and, moreover, the Kingdom of England would emerge.
Actually, in 1580 after that, Portugal was merged into Spain, which was defeated by the Kingdom of England in the battle of Armada in 1588.
However Spain was in its golden age, uniting Portugal to win over the Ottoman Turks in spring, 1586 at the time when Nobunaga returned home from Persia.
Nobunaga, nevertheless, didn$B!G(Bt take Spain for granted at all.
Only the Ottoman Empire and the kingdom of England was his target.
It proves what a genius he was in foreseeing.
Nobunaga wanted to know the reason why the Ottoman Empire was defeated at Lepanto by the union of Spain with Venice in spite of having defeated the combined fleet in the naval battle of Preveza in 1389, 33 years before.
Floyce answered clearly.
It was due to the advantageous technology of sailing and shipbuilding.
The Ottoman Turks was originally good at land fights.
The American Continent, however, was discovered by Columbus in the end of the 15th century before the European world entered into the Age of Grate Voyage in the 16th century when the technical skill of sailing and shipbuilding was a crucial issue for the tide of national power.
It is the reason why Portugal as well as Spain was prosperous.
Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution, from the second half of the 16th to the 17th century, caused an epoch-making technical innovation and then England was gaining power, that Nobunaga was convinced.
$B!H(BJapan must be the top in the technical skill,$B!I(B he thought, $B!H(BI will show $B!F(Bmy$B!G(B technical power from Japan."
Japan surpassed Europe at the productivity of guns and cannons.
Although Europe had invented a steam engine in the shipbuilding technology, nobody could imitate his idea, putting it to practical use.
Nobunaga decided to play this trump against the coming British Empire rather than existing England.
The 16th century (1543 -) when Nobunaga lived is possible to say to have been the times of social upheaval, the warlike ages, for the European countries.
The Roman Empire split in the 4th century and the Eastern Roman Empire fell in 1453.
This could be regarded as the beginning of the times of numerous heroes.
The Hapsburg family, which was born in Austria before the collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire, built up the foundation of the hegemony of the central Europe little earlier than the founding of the Ottoman Empire in the 13th century.
However, the Roman Empire was the only global empire in Europe.
After the Eastern Roman Empire collapsed, the Holy Roman Empire came to rise mainly in the central Europe.
Still there was little difference among the independence of small countries.
Even the Ottoman Turks and the Hapsburg could not be compared with the Roman Empire.
A lot of countries rose in the 16th century.
Both kingdoms of Aragon and Castilla united in 1479 and the Espana kingdom was established.
The Hapsburg family began a hereditary title of the Espana royal family in 1516, merging even Portugal in 1580.
It was in 1558 that Elizabeth I acceded to the throne in the kingdom of England.
It was in 1589 that the Bourbon in France was made.
It was in 1581 that Holland declared independence.
It was a little delayed, in 1613 that the Romanov dynasty of the Russian kingdom was formed.
It was in 1568 that Nobunaga achieved Jouraku, going up to the capital of Kyoto.
Five years later, in 1573 he overthrew the Muromachi government and, at last, achieved substantial unification of Japan.
Indeed, the latter half of the 16th century was a watershed on earth that changed the whole world from the old paradigm to the new one.
It is not too much to say that the country which had won and caught leadership in those times grasped the right of acceding to the Roman Empire
Nobunaga recognized this sufficiently.
He heard from Floyce that in the kingdom of England lived the Anglo-Saxons that had an intense desire for dominancy.
He prepared to meet the Anglo-Saxons in a single combat soon or later.
He, therefore, suspected that the fight against the Ottoman Turks would be a preliminary skirmish but it would not be so easy like India and Persia.
He was acknowledged that naval battles would be more frequent than land battles, which meant that the victory would depend on the economic power and the technical power.
The naval battles would be the first modern case of war with many arms, but not a human-to-human fight like the land one.
Nobunaga had to do the comparative analysis of the power of some countries first.
Since collecting information for its purpose was necessary, he had sent Hideyoshi to China, India and Persia.
Hideyoshi was appointed from the beginning because Nobunaga had seen through the merit of Hideyoshi who excelled in the ability of collecting information and grasping sentiment of people.
Floyce was taken back to hear this long-range strategy from Nobunaga.
"This person might become the first ruler in the world," Floyce thought in earnest.
Chapter(3)-3 The Tennoh System
There was another reason why Nobunaga returned home.
It was Nobunaga who didn't permit emperor accession after banishing the Emperor Oogimachi eternally, but he had learnt one lesson from this expedition to China, India and Persia.
There has been no dynasty to continue more than 1000 years even in the history of China that has existed more than 3000 years.
Even the Roman Empire continued less than 1000 years.
There is a word, "unbroken lineage", but it goes for only the Imperial family of Japan.
The genealogies of the successive emperors have been cleared on both father's side and mother's side.
From this expedition, Nobunaga understood that there had to be its own reason for the Imperial family of Japan to continue more than 1000 years.
He had been feeling a contradiction in society from the time of a child who was called "Kippousi"
There were many absurd things in society, which was also unpredictable.
He didn't understand why, but he believed that to rebel against society anyway would initiate him into right reason after all.
Nobody has awaked to that authority was hidden in the back of power.
As a matter of fact, he had never thought of authority.
He, of course, knew the word, $B!F(Bauthority$B!G(B, but it meant nothing for him.
The public, however, welcomed him when he advanced upon China, India and Persia.
In the meantime, the public reaction toward the substantial archons: Wei of China, Arun of India and Hideyoshi of Persia, were clearly different.
The reaction of the public toward power was from fear.
However, that toward Nobunaga was something like toward their friends.
Nobunaga learnt, "This is the energy that authority has"
Power always changes, while authority doesn't change but has continuity.
He$B!G(Bd got the feeling to naturally respect the great authority of the Imperial family, having lasted for more than 1000 years.
Moreover, the Imperial family had only authority and didn't stick to power.
Nobunaga recognized the greatness and the modesty of the Imperial family.
It was another reason that made Nobunaga return home.
He dressed up and went to the Imperial palace in Kyoto.
He applied for a direct meeting with Imperial Prince Kazuhito, a grandchild of the Emperor Oogimachi, to apologize and ask him to become the next emperor.
Far from saying no grudge about his grandfather, the Prince Kazuhito was moved by Nobunaga's sincere attitude and honesty.
He humbly received Nobunaga$B!G(Bs offer.
It was the birth of Emperor Goyouzei.
After that, the attitude of Nobunaga to Imperial family was exceptional and the Emperor made a special relationship to consult with Nobunaga about concerns he never revealed to the nobles.
Nobunaga also regarded this relationship as very important and never changed his attitude until he died.
It was the indirect cause that the relationship could lead to the good relation between samurai and noble even in the Tokugawa Period after that.
It was the 3rd General, Tokugawa Iemitsu that spoiled the relation.
He was an incompetent leader, had no services, but won the power only by succession.
Such a person generally becomes a cruel autocrat.
It is the worst case.
The successive three generations of Tokugawa: Iemitsu, Ietsuna and Tsunayoshi, had taken the backbone out of the country, Japan and, in the end, allowed it to be only victim of atomic bombs in the history of man.
As Nobunaga felt relived after the meeting with the Prince Kazuhito, he set about preparing a decisive battle against the Ottoman Turks.
Chapter(3)-4 The reinforcement of economic power
Nobunaga chose the period from 1586 to 1589 for the preparation of the decisive battle against the Ottoman Empire and the make-up of the whole country.
First, he admitted a demesne system of private land.
Japanese unique money was issued and the account system was changed from barter to in the money.
Also, some of the feudal lords, Daimyo, owners of territories until then became just political administrators in each area and were provided a small amount of taxes. The others were gathered around Nobunaga.
The reinforcement of the nation was indispensable for the decisive battle against the Ottoman Turks and also the coming European countries.
Nobunaga heard from Floyce about the population of each European country: 12 million of Espana, five million of England, 1.5 million of Holland, 20 million of France and 25 million of the Ottoman Empire.
On the other hand, the population of Japan exceeded 30 million.
It was a major power following China and India.
He was convinced that the European countries would be defeated if Japan could have economic power.
He got interests in every trade in Nagasaki and Sakai in return for refusing a high rank from the Imperial Court, because he thought much of the economic power.
He began to trade with the European countries, with monopolizing goods imported from Wei, China and Arun, India and Hideyoshi, Persia, which were concentrated on Nagasaki and Sakai through the silk roads.
Since he settled the payment with the Japanese money, it turned out to be an international hard currency that was possible to be used all over the world.
The economic power rose to the first-class in the world in less than three years.
The latest weapons could be bought as much as he liked with the money.
$B!H(BThe time has come,$B!I(B he was convinced.
In 1590 Nobunaga announced to Floyce, who was on a visit to Osaka Castle for a New Year$B!G(Bs greeting, that he would take the field of the decisive battle in coming spring.
$B!H(BWe will march up to Shanghai in March, Calcutta in April and from Esfahan up to Elburz Mountains in May,$B!I(B he continued. $B!I(BAnd then build a fort in Rasht, the west coast of the Caspian Sea, during the summer and, in the end, finish attacking in Constantinople in October. What do you think?$B!I(B
"Do you mean a frontal attack that$B!G(Bs different from the usual strategy?" Floyce asked.
"There is the only righteous road in the event of an Armageddon to conquer the world," Nobunga replied in an assured manner.
Meanwhile, the European countries were steadily appearing, while the Ottoman Empire was declining.
To prove it, Espana, England, France and Holland were aiming at India.
A letter asking for his instruction reached Nobunaga from Arun in Agra
Nobunaga directed to send Raloon, Arun$B!G(Bs right hand, to Culcutta as the governor, provide 200 thousand soldiers and set up 500 cannons along the seashore.
In the meantime, Nobunaga gave a full instruction to Hideyoshi to place 100 thousand of troops with 300 warships in Dubai that was in a way out of the Indian Ocean through the Persian Gulf in Khorramshahr from Esfahan.
He was convinced that the European countries would go south along the west coast of Africa into the Indian Ocean via the Cape of Good Hope and pass near the Persian Gulf.
After they passed, Hideyoshi's navy would pursue them, which was his strategy.
They would shoot open fire at land from ships to threaten when arriving at the offing of Calcutta. That was their usual tactic.
With an attack from both sea and land, when they were coming to the offing, we would fire cannons at their ships from both sides.
They would be finished.
Nobunaga, however, had no intention to open war at all.
He had pierced their aim at Asia and Africa that was nothing but the economic result.
Nobunaga intended to have Hideyoshi enter into diplomatic negotiation after the fire, to conclude an antiwar pact and then to give them the right of the trade in Calcutta.
Because it would be an antiwar pact in favorable condition, he could make them accept his request.
In short, he would levy a tax on the trade.
It could kill two birds with one stone.
For Nobunaga, the target was England.
After the other European countries fattened, then he would cook them.
But he must not let England be fat.
Send it away without concluding an antiwar pact.
The invasion upon the Ottoman Empire finally started in 1590.
Nobunaga imagined England declining steadily and gloated.
Nobunaga arrived at Shanghai along with a general, Konishi Yukinaga, and his 100 vassals in 10 ships in March 1590 as scheduled.
The ships were loaded with gold bars and a large amount of Japanese money.
Though they were vassals, almost all of them were hardware workers.
They were experts in casting and processing.
Two ships of the gold and money were unloaded at Shanghai and gunpowder in quantities in addition to Chinese traditional herb medicines, especially for diarrhea and wound were put on board.
Nobunaga arrived at Calcutta on April 10.
And there four ships of the gold bars and money were unloaded in order that Raloon would use them as the fund of the trade with the European countries.
The ships were loaded with dehydrated foods that keep for a long time.
Then, he entered the Persian Gulf on May 15 and went further to Esfahan via Khorramshahr, the southern edge of the Persian Gulf.
He arrived at Esfahan seven days later.
Esfahan was a beautiful city where a river, which was rare in Persia, was flowing.
The city was called Zayndeh Rod. (river: River Zayndeh)
Zayndeh means life and Rod means the river.
Because of the river, the Persian carpet made in Esfahan was the most famous.
The Persian carpet was honorable property for them, who kept splendid carpets in any home.
In front of the river, Nobunaga got off the camel which had carried him from when reached the land route from the Persian Gulf via Khorramshahr.
He saw girls washing the carpets in the river.
"How old are those girls?" Nobunaga asked Hideyoshi.
"Chand Sol Darrand?" Hideyoshi asked an attendant in fluent Persian.
"Chardh Darrand" he answered.
"He said they are 14 years old,"
" Some weave one carpet from five years old throughout their life."
Nobunaga was interested in artwork such as teapots and vases.
He was a collector, in particular, first-class goods that embodied the quintessence of its skill.
Because he had an inborn inclination for technology, he was much interested in the things elaborated with high technical skill.
"Each country has its own unique culture, so respect their skill," Nobunaga said.
When Hideyoshi told it to them, they all bowed to Nobunaga and said,
"Kheiri Mamu Nuum, Mote Chakerand"
"They says they really appreciated," Hideyoshi told Nobunaga.
Nobunaga seemed satisfied.
The origin of Esfahan can be traced back to the 6th century b.c. when some of the Jewish captives by the Neo-Babylonian Empire began to live in the northern part of existing Esfahan.
The Persian people mainly settled later, and the Jew, the Christian Armenian and the Zoroastrian moved in but a small number.
Esfahan, which has the most similar culture to Persia among numbers of dynasties in Persia, was the capital of the Safabi dynasty that had provided, for the first time, that the state religion of Iran was the Islamic Shiah sect, which has continued until now.
The Safabi Dynasty was established in 1501 by the Islamic Safabi mysticism leader, the Ismael I, and the capital was moved from Qazvin to Esfahan in 1597 by the Shah Abbas I (shah means a king) to make it the most beautiful town in the world.
He built beautiful stone bridges, the Allah-Verdi-khan bridge and the Khaju bridge which spanned over the river Zayndeh.
Also, the Imam Mosque and the Shaifrotofollah Mosque, which compete with the Mashhad Mosque, were built and the population increased ten times to 600 thousand and nearly 200 mosques were built in less than 20 years.
The town was called "Esfahan accounts for half of the world."
The history of Esfahan began in the 6th century B.C. with some Jewish residents of the Babylonian captives contemporary with the Achaemenis dynasty, and then the Persian Islamic art reached the summit while the Parthia Empire continued to the Sasan Dynasty followed by the Safabi Dynasty.
The artworks were conveyed to Nara Heijoukyo and left wonderful artworks.
They are still kept in Shosouin in Nara.
Chapter(4)-1 The rage to the European Great Powers
Arriving at Esfahan, Nobunaga gave an order to Hideyoshi to go to Dubai, because Nobunaga had already foreseen that the European countries would invade India.
If the European countries knew that Nobunaga advanced on the Ottoman Empire, they would be sure to begin invading during his absence.
They must be too proud to let Nobunaga control the trade in India.
They were so much arrogant that they took it for granted that colored races were dominated.
It was impossible for Nobunaga to tolerate such people.
He got very angry hearing from Floyce that the white people had a sense of their superiority to the colored.
"Whitish skin is a morbid symptom of albinism. The albinism has weaker skin than colored races with moderate pigment. They are aging and once the balance of pigment circulation got extremely disordered, they suffer the damage of their skin having spots, freckles and skin cancer at worst," he said. $B!H(BWhy are they superior to colored races? The reverse is the truth, isn$B!G(Bt it?"
"There seem to be black skin races in Africa and the southern part of India too, and they all have more splendid bodies than we, Japanese. But I heard they have been bought and sold as slaves. It is absolutely unforgivable!" he raised his voice. $B!H(BI will beat the European countries of the white and show off the excellence of the colored!$B!I(B
He entrusted the duty of the commander in chief at the battle to Hideyoshi.
Hideyoshi wasn$B!G(Bt good at standard battles.
He was good at tactics of plot or foul play.
As the battle against the Ottoman Empire would be a standard attack openly and squarely from the front, Nobunaga sent Hideyoshi to Dubai who was unsuitable for the standard.
He brought Yukinaga Konishi with him as the substitute.
He was influenced by Floyce and became a Christian.
Nobunaga's basic strategy was to hire soldiers.
Moreover, he used the people having a hatred for the enemy in the past as the hired soldiers.
The people with a hatred for the Ottoman Empire were Christian and had been dominated by the Ottoman Empire.
His objective focused on the country in Balkan Peninsula.
Persia was the country with Zoroastrianism originally.
However, when Islam founded by Mohammed in the 7th century, most of the Persian people were converted to Islam.
Islam was divided into Sunni and Shiah after that, and the Persian people chose Shiah sect because the Arabic people in Arabian Peninsula believed in Sunni.
The Ottoman Turks were also Sunni.
Since they were the same Muslims, he thought that it was not a good strategy to let Persia fight against the Ottoman Empire.
Meanwhile the Persian people were famous for their excellence in business as Persia merchants.
They had an economic sense.
Especially, there were many Armenians in the cities along the Caspian Sea coast.
They were white and Christian.
Many Armenians also lived in the towns, from Charuth and Amor just in the south of the Caspian Sea to the west, Rasht.
Therefore the Safabi Dynasty had had many Armenian soldiers.
Their people lived in the various countries in Balkan Peninsula too.
From this point, Nobunaga thought that the base camp should be in Rasht.
Almost every people in Esfahan were Shiah Muslim.
Nobunaga instructed Yukinaga to strictly conceal the plan of the invasion upon the Ottoman Empire.
In the severe summer, he sent Yukinaga to Rasht to set up a base camp, stayed in Esfahan and concentrated on enlightening activities for the Persia people.
On the other hand, he didn$B!G(Bt neglect to exchange information with Hideyoshi about the movement of the European countries.
" Not only brave but very careful " was Nobunaga's real ability.
Hideyoshi decided to transport those gold bars overland to procure 100 thousand soldiers in Dubai.
The strait at the exit to the Indian Ocean from the Persian Gulf was several tens km wide at most and the opposite bank was Dubai.
On the side of Persia, there was a desert and inland a city of Shiraz where there had been Persepolis, capital of the Achaemenes dynasty.
Dubai was an Arabian country but more than half of the people there was Persian.
Moreover most of them were from Shiraz.
Then, there were numbers of pirates in this strait of Dubai.
They attacked trade ships of Persia and Arab to maraud.
Therefore, Hideyoshi didn't choose the sea route in the Persian Gulf but chose the land route that passed from Shiraz to Dubai.
Dubai was a city of business.
There were many suppliers handling gold bars in the city.
Whoever had gold bars could buy anything in Dubai.
Nobunaga expected that he would make the city like Sakai in Japan.
The volume of gold that Hideyoshi brought was three times of that handled in Dubai.
To monopolize the business in Dubai was his purpose.
Hideyoshi negotiated with Gharadahri family, who was handling a large quantity of gold in Dubai and very familiar to Arun, to procure 100 thousand soldiers there.
The Gharadari family also came from Shiraz in Persia.
Immediately, 100 thousand soldiers were gathered.
The most of them were Arabic because they knew their enemy was European countries.
Once they knew England was their enemy, they exposed their hatred.
Hideyoshi realized that the European countries had been doing them a bad turn.
Dubai had a shipbuilding technology from old times.
But they had never made an iron ship.
Nobunaga, therefore, fetched a great deal of castings and technical experts of processing from Japan to make 300 steam warships of iron.
Nobunaga earlier called at Dubai to drop off the skillful experts for preparation while heading for the Persian Gulf via Esfahan from Indian Ocean, before Hideyoshi arrived at Dubai.
When Hideyoshi entered Dubai with gold, 300 steam warships had been completed already.
Hideyoshi was astonished at Nobunaga$B!G(Bs energy and speedy decision.
Chapter(4)-2 The Caspian Sea (The sea of Khazal)
Nobunaga decided that the decisive battle against the Ottoman Empire would be at Constantinople.
Yukinaga entered Rasht in June and prepared for it with following Nobunaga's instruction.
Nobunaga was thinking of strategies from both sides at the same time.
One was to invade directly into the Ottoman Empire territory from Rasht via Tabriz and the other was from Balkan Peninsula near Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman.
They should expect that Nobunaga would advance through a land route from Persia to the west of course.
However, Nobunaga wanted to conquer the Balkan countries dominated by the Ottoman Empire and bring them into a sea fight in the Black Sea.
The problem was how to enter into Balkan Peninsula.
If entering overland, he would go up to the north along the eastern side of the Caspian Sea and enter into Moldavia, Bulgaria and Serbia via Turkmenistan and Ukraine.
Still Serbia and Bulgaria, which were most prosperous at that time, were dominated for 200 years by the Ottoman Empire.
Therefore, he thought of another way to go out to the Mediterranean Sea via Babylonia and Assyria, which had fallen into ruins since destroyed by the Roman Empire, and then enter to Balkan Peninsula.
This area, however, also came to be under the control of the Ottoman Empire when it prospered in the 13th century.
Nobunaga was convinced that they were absolutely mighty.
When he was looking into the map of Persia, he suddenly found an area that he hadn$B!G(Bt mentioned.
" Caucasus!" He said himself.
" If going north from Rasht to Caucasus area (Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia) that are between the east shore of the Black Sea and the west coast of the Caspian Sea,$B!I(B he figured out. $B!H(BWe can come out on the north of the Ottoman Empire, former Safabi dynasty, that$B!G(Bs already my territory and not under control of the Empire yet. "
Nobunaga immediately ordered Yukinaga to instruct Golabchi, a patriarch of Rasht, to build up a battleship and hand over the gold bars to him.
He thought that the best strategy to attack the Ottoman Empire was to settle a base camp to supply military goods in Baku, Azerbaijan by going north overland from Rasht along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, and build a dockyard at Pochi in the eastern coast of the Black Sea via Azerbaijan-Georgia area.
Pochi was just one place where they could simultaneously descend from sea and land on Constantinople located opposite the Black Sea.
Baku was suitable for a rear base to supply and support Pochi, because it located in the center of the area where the deposit of a variety of metals in addition to ironstone were inexhaustibly buried under the ground.
And Muslim Turks lived mainly in Baku but Christian Georgia people had been living in Pochi from the ancient times.
Their hostility toward Islam Ottoman Turks was very strong.
Nobunaga directed Yukinaga to stop shipbuilding at Rasht but start it at Pochi.
Neither Yukinaga nor Gorabchi could understand why.
They wondered whether it was safe in Pochi because it was near the border in spite of the outside of the Ottoman Empire territory.
However Nobunaga read a few more steps ahead than they.
Settling bases in Baku and Pochi was judged to be several times as valuable as that in Rasht.
He thought that he would bring up Pochi as the biggest base of shipbuilding like Sakai, a base of manufacturing guns in addition to a trading port.
Therefore, Nobunaga thought that it was a primary issue to make Yukinaga and Gorabchi transport a great deal of gold bars to Baku and Pochi for the arrangement of building steam warships of iron.
$B!H(B I$B!G(Bm sure that we will get the admiralty on Indian Ocean by settling a base in Dubai and in the Eurasian Continent important bases of strategy against Europe in Baku and Pochi,$B!I(B Nobunaga was convinced. "I have only one thing to do. Where to make a base on the Mediterranean Sea."
He admitted that his global strategy by then was largely depended on Hideyoshi.
He made up his mind to have Hideyoshi back to Japan from Dubai via Calcutta to make him an archon in Japan.
Nobunaga frankly admitted Hideyoshi to have come up well from a peasant.
As he treated any human of any roots with fairness, Hideyoshi had a chance to play a success game because of his ability.
If Nobunaga was coming from the peasantry like Hideyoshi, he asked himself.
$B!I(BWhether I am here now?$B!I(B He had no confidence.
He called Hideyoshi " monkey ", but he admitted his superiority.
It was the reason why he decided that Hideyoshi would be his successor as the archon of Japan.
The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world.
It is a saline lake on the west of the Aral Sea, on the east of the Black Sea leading to the Mediterranean Sea.
There is a possibility that in the ancient times the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea and also the Persian Gulf were leading to each other and formed one sea, so the African Continent must be bigger than Greenland.
The black people in Africa don't have any trace of having been mixed with the races in other continents.
In the southern part of India live brown-colored people, but their features are completely different from the black people.
In the Eurasian Continent, Baku was the biggest city by the Caspian Sea and Constantinople was the counterpart by the Black Sea.
There was a country called Khazal surrounding Baku.
Therefore, the Caspian Sea is still called $B!F(Bthe sea of Khazal$B!G(B (Darius Khazar) in Iran.
The ancestor should be the white of the Turkish or the Aryan.
The Persian people who live along the Caspian Sea coast include many whites.
There are many blond belles too.
The ancestor of the European whites seems to be closely related to the Caspian Sea district.
Among the same Muslims, the people living in Iran and Afghanistan, the eastern from Persian Gulf, are completely different from those from the Arabian Peninsula to Africa.
Their cultures are also different.
The language they speak in Persia, Afghanistan and eastern India is the same.
It must be the reason why Nobunaga identified India with Persia.
Chapter(4)-3 The trap
Hideyoshi contacted Nobunaga by that information system of beacon.
The European countries seemed to be moving.
Four Dutch sailboats were sailing in the east off the Red Sea three days ago.
Then, three English iron ships passed through the same route yesterday, delaying for two days.
The report said that they would probably approach off the Persian Gulf after three to five days.
" It will be a two-day game," Nobunaga reasoned.
First, before the English squadron arrives in the Calcutta offing, he will attack the Dutch ships and conclude an antiwar pact.
When the English ships arrive, the Dutch will cooperate with him to send them away.
Nobunaga issued an order to Hideyoshi to take 2000 soldiers on 20 warships to chase the Dutch squadron.
Of course, the commander is Hideyoshi.
When Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs ships were standing by off the Strait of Hormuz, four Dutch ships passed.
His fleet always kept a distance of half a day behind one small guard boat not to be perceived by the Dutch.
The Indian Ocean was very quiet, as it was July after the tropical monsoon season.
On July 13, the Dutch squadron arrived in the Calcutta offing.
They were about to send a messenger to Raloon, the governor of Calcutta, when as much as 500 cannons installed in the quay was fired.
They didn't shoot at the ships, the Dutch, however, was astonished by the dreadful roar.
Then, Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs fleet caught up with the Dutch squadron that was in a fluster.
From his ships the second rush of cannons blew up behind the Dutch.
When they were thrown into complete confusion, Hideyoshi gave a stop sign to attack.
After the attack stopped from both land and sea, his flagship running a white flag up its bow approached the Dutch.
The Dutch flagship also raised a white flag up its bow.
Hideyoshi led four Dutch ships to the offing without boarding their flagship.
Then, he took representatives of both on the ship that came out from the harbor of Calcutta to land.
Immediately, Hideyoshi invited five representatives of Holland to the governor palace in Calcutta where Raloon waited.
A Duch commander with a big body, Gruno, stepped forward in front of Hideyoshi and shook hands with Hideyoshi.
"What a big hand with strong power!" Hideyoshi thought but grasped back with his small hand at his best.
Gruno stared at his face and smiled.
The talk ended within 2 hours.
An antiwar pact and a commercial treaty were concluded between India and Holland.
Japan just plays a role of go-between without intervening in them.
Japan cooperates with India and Holland in case they have some trouble with their enemy.
Holland establishes The Dutch East India Company in Calcutta that represents Holland on the trade between India and Holland.
They also establish The Dutch West India Company in Amsterdam that represents India as well.
When a problem occurs, the two offices should talk and make an effort toward a solution.
They were such kind of treaties.
Hideyoshi prepared a luxurious house for the five representatives to rest in Calcutta.
" Please make yourself at home in this house, " he said after the talk.
At the governor palace, Raloon worked out a countermeasure against England with Hideyoshi.
Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs fleet hid in a bay on the east of the Calcutta offing for a while.
"England isn't anything like Holland," Hideyoshi advised Raloon.
They won$B!G(Bt aim at India conquest at a stroke, because they will come with only three warships. However their power of the ships must be also quite different from the Dutch.
"Anyway, sending them away is our purpose," Hideyoshi warned. "At least one ship should be sunk. But never attack the flagship!"
Raloon was excited to hear his command.
Hideyoshi entertained the Dutch commanders including Gruno.
It was the time for him to display his sociable ability, his specialty.
"I have heard that England is energetic recently," he said. "How do you think compared with Holland?"
" Holland is still a small country with population of some 1.5 million. However England is about 5 million, " said Gruno. "But Holland has more economic power than England and even France that has more than 20 million people," Gruno answered proudly.
Hideyoshi had already known such a thing.
"Well, do you say that you have a confidence to win now if you make a war against England? " he attempted to provoke Gruno.
"Of course, I am ready anytime," Gruno said.
"I$B!G(Bve got it! " he chuckled to himself.
Three English warships appeared in the Calcutta offing two days later.
Hideyoshi made some Indians who had been standing by spread this information in Calcutta.
Of course, it reached the ears of the Dutch representatives too.
They asked Hideyoshi about his tactics for the future.
"Conclude a treaty in the same way? " Gruno asked.
"Sure, I have an intention to make an agreement because to keep peace is our principle. But that is up to them," Hideyoshi answered.
He had already commanded that a ship of his fleet lurking in the bay stand by between the gulf and the English squadron and shoot cannons.
The England mistook it from the attack from the inland of Calcutta and fired a volley of cannons toward Calcutta.
Calcutta was thrown into confusion here and there with explosions.
"Different from your country, a country called England is a barbarous, isn$B!G(Bt it?"
Hideyoshi incited Gruno.
$B!H(BSure is!$B!I(B Gruno replied.
"You are our brother as we concluded a treaty. Then, I want to listen to your opinion" Hideyoshi asked.
"Let$B!G(Bs fight against them as fellows " Gruno issued a direction to their squadron to attack the English ships immediately.
Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs fleet also began shelling behind the English ships simultaneously.
One English ship was in no time attacked and sunk.
Two of them left in dread of the attack and disappeared into the offing of the Indian Ocean.
Hideyoshi made his scout chase them to watch their movement just in case.
It was to ascertain whether or not they had an intention to turn to a counterattack.
However, they didn't seem to have the intention at all and went straight back to their country.
Nobunaga heard this news to grin, "That monkey, a real go-getter!"
From a standpoint of statistics, everything on the earth exists in terms of a theory of duality and a proportion is always 80% to 20%.
The reason why the white people differentiate the colored races is they account for the 20% and the colored for 80%.
It is the idea, $B!F(Bfewer ones, better quality.$B!G(B
Then, the 20% are divided into 80% and 20% again, and the last 20% are the Anglo-Saxon.
The last 80 percent are the other white races.
There are German American, Russian American, Italian American, French American and so forth.
But there is no one called British American.
This is the fact that they believe the Anglo-Saxon is the best.
They have a sense of discrimination even among the white people.
He focused on England because he was aware that racial discrimination originated from the Anglo-Saxon in the Kingdom of England who has a strong desire for control.
In Scotland and Ireland the people feel conceivable abhorrence toward England.
Nobunaga was extremely surprised to know that there used to be a terrible custom that English noble could taste a bride before the wedding night when the Scottish couple got married.
Indeed they are so arrogance that they believe that, except for themselves, other people are not to be human beings. It is a view of madness.
Their philosophy that dominators are allowed to do whatever they want to the dominated reduces human beings to a sort of creatures below animals.
Nobunaga had confronted a variety of evil men so far but there was not such a mean kind.
$B!H(B It will come to a tragedy of human in the future unless such kind of people are wiped out from this world,$B!I(B Nobunaga sighed in a rage.
After all, in the 20th century, they have done many cruel acts including wars especially dropping atomic bombs, which had no reverence for God.
Nobunaga thought that only England should not be forgiven by all means.
Chapter(5)-1 Hideyoshi rejoicing
In the end of July, Hideyoshi visited Gruno in Calcutta to say good-bye as he was to return to Japan.
Six years have passed since he departed for Korea from Izumo in 1584.
Hideyoshi has become 54 years old.
Also it is seven years since Nobunaga became a president of the republic of Japan at age 50.
Nobunaga restored the Tennoh system and founded the world's first republic monarchy consisting of both constitutional monarchy and republican form.
The head of the state is to be elected by the people under the republican system persistently but a deputy is chosen on the recommendation of the Imperial family in pairs with the head.
The head is to be supported from the Imperial family and have authority.
Power is to depend on the deputy the Emperor recommends.
It is a mutual complementing system of authority and power.
The Emperor Goyozei was the head and Nobunaga is the deputy.
The face of the monarch is the Emperor but the body is Nobunaga.
Hideyoshi returned to Japan with Nobunaga's letter of recommendation to take over from Nobunaga and be the deputy.
Hideyoshi will become a substantial archon.
The status or position means nothing to Nobunaga.
He wants to know what he can do or what God with nature demands of him.
He has no choice but just to know that he will go even to hell.
The value of a human being can be judged from neither his status nor his power.
It is only his body but no status, no power.
A great success can be accomplished only by his human nature.
Nobunaga believes that this is the true value of a human being.
Therefore, he thought highly of Hideyoshi.
It is too arduous to become prominent without any support by nature.
If taking over everything prepared by parents, anyone can do in his own way.
However, that has nothing to do with his ability itself.
Making something from nothing just with his effort and ability is hundreds of times as valuable as increasing something prepared.
Nothing can be compared with it.
Nobunaga is eager to try himself on a world scale.
He told himself that Japan is already Hideyoshi's.
On his way home Japan Nobunaga headed for due east from Calcutta.
Passing near Java, he gave an order to a search ship to investigate the conditions of Java.
The search ship caught up with him when he came near Ryuukyuu Islands. (The most southern part of Japan)
It reported that Java consists of thousands of small islands, where live the Polynesian people mainly on sea food by fishing and countless fruits harvested in the islands, and their culture seems to be quite backward.
The Dutch missionary is already there and doing propagation.
The Dutch ships also come regularly to trade.
It is a matter of time before Holland colonizes Java.
Hideyoshi remembered that Nobunaga told him in Dubai before.
" Well monkey! We should think Europe extends up to India. Both the race and religion are different. To the east of Siam is Asia," Nobunaga continued.
"India is Far Eastern Europe and Japan is Far Eastern Asia, and the border is Siam, Western Asia. The European countries are sure to make all of Asian countries their colonies in the near future. But they cannot with Siam and Japan. Do you know why? "
Hideyoshi admired that what Nobunaga was thinking would never occur to him.
" I do not understand," he answered.
" Well, monkey! The ability of a leader decides whether a country is stable or to be invaded and dominated by other country. It is impossible to try to rule a country only by power but possible by respect from people. It depends on whether he has authority or not. There is a royal family in Siam and the Imperial family in Japan," he remarked when Hideyoshi got the right to govern Japan.
" You know, if you try to rule only by power, you will surely be destroyed. We all Asian countries should cooperate with each other as partners and our partner is Siam," he asserted. " You should be working it on to reach Sian, monkey! "
No sooner had Nobunaga arrived at Osaka than he called Floyce.
Hideyoshi was entrusted with ruling Japan but he had not been able to understand Nobunaga's words yet.
" Well, Floyce! I have a plan to build a castle in Fushimi in the south of Kyoto,
in stead of living in Osaka castle my lord, Nobunaga lived in. How do you think of? " He asked.
"The lord thinks that Osaka is tactically an important place, so you should not care about the lord too much and better live in Osaka castle," Floyce replied.
"However, once the lord gets angry, it is the end of the world," Hideyoshi sighed.
Floyce was afraid that Hideyoshi couldn$B!G(Bt distinguish Nobunaga's real intention and he was just in awe.
Nobunaga detests ideas and actions with cheap tricks.
There seems to be nobody like him with much lenity if you are prepared to risk everything.
Floyce was sure that Hideyoshi has yet to abandon himself.
"The Nijo castle the lord Nobunaga built was near the Imperial Palace, but Fushimi is far to the south. It is OK if in Kyoto, isn$B!G(Bt it?" Hideyoshi sought agreement.
Floyce, however, didn$B!G(Bt answer.
He had some foreboding.
Chapter(5)-2 Hideyoshi at ecstasy
Hideyoshi received a position as the deputy of state from the Emperor Goyozei.
It means a real ruler.
It was as a regent and a chief adviser to the Emperor in the previous official ranks.
After he received it, the ranks below the grand minister and left side and right side ministers were completely abolished.
That was discussed and decided between Hideyoshi and the Emperor Goyozei.
The head of state is a symbol of authority as a constitutional monarchy.
The deputy of state is a president in the republic.
They work together to accomplish tasks.
Then, a seigneur in each feudal clan was what is now called a post concurrently serving as a congressman and a governor, and also the name, seigner was changed to official in feudal clan.
Basically, former seigneurs serve as officials in feudal clans, but there is no hereditary system.
The second ranking officials in clans are chosen among officials in counties that compose a feudal clan.
The officials in counties are chosen among warriors.
Then, the officials in feudal clans discuss and decide administrative policies at Osaka Castle.
The administration consists of six functions: state affairs, diplomacy, finance, economy, army, domestic affairs. Moreover, a chief of the state affair, a chief of the diplomacy, a minister of the finance, a minister of the economy, a general commander of the military affairs, and a secretary of the domestic affairs are selected among the representative officials in feudal clans.
Hideyoshi, the deputy of state regulates all.
Moreover, only Kyoto where the Emperor of the head of state lives is exceptionally not to be called a feudal clan but a capital.
Appointed by the Emperor, the court nobles just play a role to manage the capital of Kyoto, and then they are not involved at all in the national politics.
Kyoto is the only special independent area for the Emperor.
It is exactly the same as Vatican in Rome. The Pope is the Emperor.
Then, Osaka is a political center but just one of clans, and Hideyoshi also holds the post of the official of a feudal clan, Osaka.
As the official of Osaka is the deputy of state, Osaka Castle has become the center of politics in Japan and every official of feudal clans gathered there to administrate the nation.
Nobunaga's image of a new state was in this point.
Floyce knew that sufficiently.
However, Hideyoshi understood that the Muromachi Shogunate government was changed to the Osaka Shogunate, i.e. the relation between the Imperial Court and the Shogunate.
He also understood that the former Shogun was changed to a deputy of state.
He thought that making his home at Fushimi as the deputy of state meant that the Osaka Shogunate only changed into the Fushimi Shogunate.
Fushimi is, however, in the capital of Kyoto.
That$B!G(Bs almost all he understood.
Still, as for his sense of sudden incidents, Hideyoshi has exceptional ability.
Therefore, he has been assisting Nobunaga in facing a variety of crises.
Nobunaga has great respect of his support.
However, Hideyoshi doesn$B!G(Bt have ability to foresee the future at all.
He doesn$B!G(Bt have will principles but just ambition.
There are some factors for a human being to be called a person.
A person needs mettle, will principles, morality, judgment, capacity, belief, benignity and gracefulness. (dignity) A human being learns first mettle, second will principles, third$B!D(B and at last becomes a person of dignity.
This is a process leading to the righteous road.
Hideyoshi doesn$B!G(Bt have the ability of foresight yet because he has yet to learn the will principles.
Ambition is a private life vision.
Will principle is a national vision.
This difference will tremendously affect the future policies.
However, for now, Hideyoshi is full of a dream to establish the Fushimi Shogunate.
Chapter(5)-3 Hideyoshi at distraction
Hideyoshi had been worried about how to treat Ieyasu, because Ieyasu was originally the equal cooperator to Nobunaga who was Hideyoshi$B!G(Bs lord.
Hideyoshi decided to treat Ieyasu as his vassal and Ieyasu agreed to be his vassal as well, since Nobunaga selected anyone with ability without bonding to their past.
The chief of the state affairs is the most important post in the Cabinet and Ieyasu has the most appropriate character to the post. But Hideyoshi appointed him as the chief of the diplomacy.
Instead, he appointed one of his apprentice vassals, Ishida Mitsunari, as the chief of the state affairs.
It is common for men in power to fortify his surroundings with his apprentices to keep his power.
Power paralyzes his ability to notice that his vassals will be bootleggers of drug, which leads him to destruction.
Power is a terrible drug.
Nobunaga restored the Tennoh System because he found that respecting the Emperor who had been sustaining authority should neutralize the drug called power.
Then Hideyoshi appointed Hidenaga, his younger brother, to the minister of the finance and the economy, Kato Kiyomasa to the general commander of the military, and Fukushima Masanori to the security leader.
Floyce thought this personnel management was correct regarding only Hidenaga and Kiyomasa.
The Fushimi Castle was completed.
It was a gorgeous castle called another name $B!F(BJurakudai.$B!G(B
Inside the castle was gold plating bedroom and gold plating tearoom.
In those days, a thief, Ishikawa Goemon, who had quitted a ninja in the Iga provinces, was despoiling a city in Kyoto.
He was little different from other thieves; he doesn$B!G(Bt steal from the poor but attacked and robbed from rich merchants and Samurai residences.
Moreover, he didn$B!G(Bt in Osaka but Kyoto.
Because there was plenty of homes of officials around the Fushimi Castle, that was a golden place for Goemon.
Goemon won great popularity among the public as a chivalrous thief, because he gave the money and valuables that he had robbed to poor peasants and poor merchants near the castle.
In the meantime, Hideyoshi disliked Goemon, because he was not only just a thief but popular among the public.
It is usual that men in power are always worried about his popularity.
One day, Goemon broke into the Fushimi Castle.
He successfully stole an expensive tea set from the gold plating tearoom.
Hideyoshi was enraged and gave a strict order to Maeda Genji in Kyoto magistrate$B!G(Bs office to catch him immediately. And later Goemon was captured near the castle where the public sheltered him.
Hideyoshi executed Goemon in front of the public, boiling him in a caldron as a warning.
Worst of all, Hideyoshi punished even Goemon$B!G(Bs family and also the public who had sheltered him at a suggestion of Genji and, furthermore, he branded them as convicts.
Hideyoshi never imagined that it would infuriate Nobunaga later.
Hideyoshi summoned Ieyasu to the castle.
Ieyasu who took the task of the diplomatic chief has never been to foreign countries so far.
Hideyoshi told him about Nobunaga.
Nobunaga in Esfahan, Persia, will reach to a crucial moment.
He has been winning by his own strategy so far, but he intends to gain a victory fair against the Ottoman Empire openly.
Of course, he has a strategy.
However, he will attack the Ottoman Empire with the next fight against England in mind.
The Ottoman Turks are so powerful that they have ruined even the Eastern Roman Empire, dominating the white society in Europe.
They are not a pure white race like the Europeans but they are the same as Khazal people, one of Caucasian.
Finally, it is Nobunaga$B!G(Bs objective to determinate the conflict between colored races and white races.
It doesn$B!G(Bt mean that the colored would dominate the white but he crushes a sense of superiority among the white.
Therefore, he is convinced that he must win by force when fighting against the country of the white.
Huge expenditure is necessary for the purpose.
Ieyasu heard the story to think that Nobunaga was really splendid.
Nobunaga gave Hideyoshi a teaching that Japan should play a role to unite Asian countries from Siam to the east.
Ieyasu thought that it would be a hard mission when he heard what he should do as the diplomatic chief.
"Lord Nobunaga is now preparing for the decisive battle against the Ottoman Empire. But he is convinced that the final enemy is England, " Hideyoshi explained.
"Moreover, our lord intends to conquer Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, by ground fight and also bring the battle against England to an end by a sea battle, " Ieyasu said.
"Lord is looking through why the imperialism in the European countries is emphasizing on economy. That does cost tremendously," said Hideyoshi. "Moreover Lord says that he has never fought with exploiting weak people like peasants. "
"This will be an economic war, won$B!G(Bt it?"
"Exactly," Hidyoshi murmured with a sigh.
"However it depends on the competence of your brother Hidenaga, " said Ieyasu.
"Especially the diplomatic relations with Siam and other Asian countries that are already reached by the dirty hand of the European countries depend on your diplomacy, "
Hideyoshi said to Ieyasu.
" Now my time has come, " Ieyasu said to himself.
Chapter(6)-1 The High performance of the leader
Half a year has passed since Gorabchi and Yukinaga went to Baku and Pochi.
The base supply camp in Baku was already completed.
It is in order to carry out a magnificent plan; shipbuilding, manufacturing arms and steam locomotives, and constructing railroads in Pochi.
The shipbuilding is almost finished.
A quarter of thousand transport vessels - each has a capacity of two thousand soldiers - can ship 500 thousand soldiers anywhere in the Black Sea.
Nobunaga is planning to transport 500 thousand soldiers to Serbia, Bulgaria in the Balkan Peninsula via Pochi and take more 500 thousand soldiers on board there, and attach with unprecedented armies of one million from Balkan.
Since most of the people in the Azerbaijan district, whose center is Baku, are Turkish Azerbaidjan, he doesn$B!G(Bt intend to hire soldiers in Baku.
In the meantime, another one million troops will attack Constantinople after invading a Turkish territory via Tabriz from Rasht and passing the Turkish territory.
Attack Constantinople from both sides of the Balkan Peninsula in the west and Persia in the east with one million soldiers each.
Nobunaga wants to conquer the Ottoman Empire because he actually needs to obtain Constantinople itself in terms of the strategy for Europe in the future.
Constantinople is the most important place connecting the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea.
It is possible to reach a lot of countries along a river from the Black Sea and to land in southern Europe, the Middle East, the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa from the Mediterranean Sea and also lead to anywhere in the world if coming out to the Atlantic Ocean out of the strait of Gibraltar.
More people started traveling by sea than land owing to advance in sailing technology.
The Silk Road, the only way that joined Europe to Asia was gradually dismissed.
Constantinople is the largest key base in the Eurasian Continent on that point.
The Eastern Roman Empire continued longer than the Western Roman Empire because its capital was Constantinople, and in order to regain Constantinople the Ottoman Empire destroyed the Eastern Roman Empire.
As for Nobunaga, the decisive battle against the Ottoman Empire aims at obtaining Constantinople but ruling the Ottoman Empire.
Nobunaga is already 57 years old.
" I have lived seven years extra life, but 10 years is enough, "he thought.
Primarily, he wanted to invade Constantinople after railroad construction was completed, but he heard that it would take 18 months to do it even if using a great deal of laborers, and later decided to start up the invasion after he had confirmed that the transport ships were built up and the arms to defend his troops were prepared.
" This is a land fight. It is good enough to complete the railroad to carry in quantities fast and the warships until the battle against England, " no sooner he judged than moved into action like a gale.
In the end of 1590, Nobunaga moved from Esfahan to Rasht to elaborate the last plan of operations with Gorabchi and Yukinaga there.
It will take 15 days from the Caspian Sea to Baku and four months to enter Bulgaria and Serbia in Balkan Peninsula while crossing the northern part of the Black Sea via Pochi from Baku and coming in sight Constantinople on the side.
Then, one month to hire 500 thousand soldiers to head for Constantinople.
It will take totally about half a year to advance.
Meanwhile, they need three months to cross the Anatolia district in Turkey from Rasht.
Nobunaga set the day for the Constantinople$B!G(Bs surrender in September of the next year.
Anyone knows that this advance will compel them to consume huge energy in either case.
It$B!G(Bs no surprise that ordinary people hesitate in such case.
However, Nobunaga never looks back once he has decided.
Where on earth do his mental power and mettle come from?
As Gorabchi and Yukinaga are very religious, they are confident in their mental power but Nobunaga$B!G(Bs is by far different from theirs.
On December 25, 500 thousand corps disappeared into the north from Rasht heading for Baku.
Nobunaga departed as a commander of this corps together.
Gorabchi was appointed to a commander of the army on the land route and Yukinaga undertook logistic duty of the Gorabchi army.
Nobunaga became the commander of the corps that had to take a hard way to enter the Balkan Peninsula crossing the Black Sea on a land route because he knew that subordinates wouldn$B!G(Bt trust a leader sincerely unless the leader took the lead in hard tasks.
Such an organization is of no use as doesn$B!G(Bt trust a leader even though it has 500 thousands members.
The battle at Okehazama had proved it.
While they were the hired soldiers, they all trusted Nobunaga.
He sometimes shined brilliantly like God and sometimes friendly like their colleague, which made this march rather delightful than difficult.
It is a turning point of human ability whether he has free mind to play with the difficulty when he encounters tribulation or trouble.
Nobunaga had never been in blessed condition until he became a ruler in Japan.
He always fought a battle in disadvantageous condition, but he enjoyed it.
He had usually been taciturn but he showed his nature that nobody had ever seen and there was no end to laughter during the march.
It tells that this battle is the biggest so far.
Chapter(6)-2 The reappearance at Okehazama
The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world.
The islands of Japan could be entirely fit into The Caspian Sea.
Nobunaga was once impressed to see a big lake, the Lake Biwa near the Azuchi castle he built but for now the scale was far different.
Baku located just in the center of the west side of the Caspian Sea is now a capital of Azerbaijan.
The governor of Baku and the people welcomed his battalion without any antagonism who arrived at Baku, and that surprised Nobunaga since he had heard they were of Turkish descent.
On the contrary, they were discriminated against by the Persian Safabi Dynasty, the former ruler, because of Turkish descent.
Nobunaga recalled his family discord he had experienced when he was young as he thought it was similar to a family discord.
The governor came to greet Nobunaga.
Nobunaga's name was already known throughout the whole Europe.
The Ottoman Empire was steadily proceeding with preparation for the fight against Nobunaga tightening their guard, according to information.
"The land route march extending over several thousand kilometers is extremely arduous. I$B!G(Bm sure that many of soldiers will drop out," said the governor with a view of his advice.
"I$B!G(Bll never permit even one soldier of the 500 thousand to march on foot. First, I thought of steam locomotives but they are not ready yet, so got camel locomotives,"
The governor was astonished and opened a mouth.
"Sorry, what did you say? " he asked.
"Well, camel locomotive," said Nobunaga smiling.
"How many camels can you prepare? " Nobunaga asked his vassal Jamaal.
"100 thousand could get ready," Jamaal answered easily.
"100 thousand camels?" said the governor with an incredible look.
Half a year before, Nobunaga in Persia had ordered Jamaal to purchase camels from a Bedouin, Arabian nomad who lived in a desert of the Arabian Peninsula when he began shipbuilding in Pochi.
Then, he had also issued a command to make king-sized wagons in addition to ships at the same time.
100 soldiers for a wagon.
He had ordered five thousand wagons; 20 camels would pull one wagon.
It is easily for the camels.
The governor was struck dumb at Nobunaga's amazing idea and executing ability.
"When is it possible to leave?" Nobunaga asked Jamaal.
"We could do tomorrow," Jamaal replied proudly.
" How long will an ordinary march take? "
Jamaal could not understand what Nobunaga meant.
"I estimate that it would take 150 days for 20 kilometers per day at most," Jamaal answered specifically as he was familiar with Nobunaga$B!G(Bs character.
Nobunaga looked satisfied.
"We can reach Sarajevo in 30 days if it is possible to proceed to go 100 kilos a day," Nobunaga reasoned with some conception. "Well, it is 10 days from Sarajevo to Constantinople and Constantinople can be surrounded in 60 days at longest. Then Tabriz corps can cross over Anatolia via Tabriz in 60 days even if overestimated," Nobunaga was computing with his brain. "The Ottoman Empire must expect that we will reach Constantinople from June to July, so they can do nothing if we rush in March."
The governor and Jamaal were stunned and saw Nobunaga's face.
Nobunaga looked calm.
On February 18, 1591, the army of Nobunaga arrived at Sarajevo.
Another 500 thousand of troops also joined there.
He decided to carry the 500 thousand soldiers as well on the camel locomotives since the journey on the wagons seemed more comfortable than he had imagined and also the camels didn$B!G(Bt look tired at all.
It would take 10 days from Sarajevo to Constantinople.
Carrying one million of troops by two round-trips, 500 thousand per one round trip, would take 30 days but he estimated 40 days in consideration of rest for the camels.
Therefore, he set up the day of surrounding Constantinople in the end of March.
The Gorabchi corps from Tabriz was mostly Persian.
The New Year in Persia is March 21 called No Ruz and they take seven days off.
So, Nobunaga decided that two million soldiers would join in Constantinople on March 29 after No Ruz and then attack at a stroke on March 31.
He sent an envoy to give an order to Gorabchi corps.
The Gorabchi corps relaxed and spent No Ruz in western Anatolia after a long walking journey, which stirred up their fighting instinct.
On March 29, Nobunaga, Gorabchi and Yukinaga joined after three months separation.
Gorabchi and Yukinaga had been anxious about him when Nobunaga left Rasht from the Caspian Sea but they were surprised to know that nobody of his corps had dropped out during a long voyage.
His corps seemed to have rather dynamic morale than theirs.
On March 30, 10 soldiers who had scouted a fortress in Constantinople returned to report the position of the enemy.
They had also sneaked into the city and heard a rumor that the emperor was flustered.
They said that it was March 28 when he got to know that Nobunaga$B!G(Bs corps had already showed up in the suburbs of Constantinople. Then, he had just planned to build a wall around the city and completed the procurement of materials as the emperor thought the time would be June. Neither soldiers nor weapons could be assembled yet.
And, moreover, most of the officers were reported to have said that they had advised the emperor to negotiate diplomatic relations, with fearing Nobunaga and losing fighting spirit.
Yukinaga was convinced that Nobunaga should win a victory without fighting since he knew the steps Nobunaga had taken so far.
Nobunaga, however, was different this time.
He decisively commanded to attack them to surrender.
In the evening of March 30, three messengers of the opponent visited Nobunaga's Jinya (Camp) with a white flag in hand.
They said that they had come to deliver a letter from the emperor.
Nobunaga handed over the document to Gorabchi.
He began to sneer while reading it.
"Complete surrender, but he is begging for his life."
"A leader should say that he would give his head on behalf of his people$B!G(Bs lives. It$B!G(Bs outrageous for him to say full yielding for his own life. Cut the three heads off, send them back!" Nobunaga bellowed in a rage.
Sooner the three messengers were cut off and sent back to the emperor; one of them stuck an arrow with a letter of a declaration of war that said they would open an attack at 8:00 am in the next morning.
A monster, Nobunaga was revived after a long time, Yukinaga thought.
From the beginning, however, Nobunaga intended to do so regardless of the contents of the emperor$B!G(Bs letter.
It was a front attack thoroughly.
For one reason there was the matter of the morale of the two million soldiers.
When a human being becomes into an extreme situation, he becomes a brute.
The energy must be released.
Still it can$B!G(Bt be permitted from turning to the public, therefore, soldiers must face each other.
For another reason it was a demonstration toward the last enemy, England.
At night Nobunaga ordered the whole army to start the attack at 8:00 in the next morning.
Chapter(6)-3 The victim, Ottoman Empire
March 31, 1591, the decisive battle against the Ottoman Empire had just begun.
Nobunaga didn$B!G(Bt use any strategy but as much as two million of cops attacked Constantinople.
The population of Constantinople was one of the greatest in the world with two million as the opponents.
The emperor of the Ottoman Empire shuddered when he saw the same number of soldiers as its population surging.
On the contrary, the enemy had one million warriors.
For the greatest Empire dominating a fifth of the world, they could have prepared even two million to three million soldiers, but there was nothing for it because of Nobunaga$B!G(Bs swift action like a gale.
His speed and cruelty reminded them of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan destroyed by Timur when they saw the three heads sent back to them.
Nobunaga$B!G(Bs close resemblance to Timur also reminded them of the fear of the past as the Ottoman Empire had fallen down after Suleiman I died.
The game was already decided.
This time, however, Nobunaga opened a full attack regardless of the enemy$B!G(Bs strategy.
His troops were just twice in number but 10 times in morale.
Nobunaga did just as he wanted.
Nobunaga issued a direction to exterminate the half of the enemy.
It was genocide of 500 thousand.
The energy of one million soldiers running around was the same as that of 10 thousand soldiers fighting.
It was similar to 20 soldiers killing one soldier; it was torture rather than a battle.
The battle opened at 8:00 am and ended in a day.
Constantinople was filled up with 500 thousand corpses.
The next day, April 1, only the emperor and generals were taken out to the scaffold and hanged in front of the public.
However their family were inflicted no punishment at all.
Gorabchi advised Nobunaga that only the male lines of them had better be rooted up beforehand but Nobunaga didn't permit.
Nobunaga had no fear of the future in his mind.
He was occupied with a sense of mortality in any circumstances.
Nobunaga had no interest in keeping his own empire as long as possible.
The country the Ottoman Empire had dominated was released to be the original Turkish territory and then they decided to choose a governor of their own accord.
Nobunaga decided to take part in only their economic policy.
Even the families of the emperor and the generals who were executed welcomed his scheme.
Nobunaga judged it better to give them autonomy of the nation as it was such a big country with a great number of people.
As for the economic policy, however, they got behind other European countries.
He thought that he would take care of it.
His way of thinking was very rational.
He was afraid that the public of this country could not understand a virtue of nationalism yet compared with European countries.
He was sure that this country would need to nourish their culture at first to be able to compete with Europe, so he invited Floyce to Constantinople to make him a leader in this country.
Chapter(7)-1 Constantinople, the navel of the Eurasia
Gorabchi and Yukinaga advised Nobunaga to return to Japan after Constantinople fell into his hand but he didn't agree with them.
He had been thinking his life was 50 years.
He was about to lose his life at 49 years old but he didn$B!G(Bt have a rage nor regret to Mitsuhide's betrayal.
Then, he intended to commit suicide calmly.
However, Yasuke, an African black guy, who was a slave of Floyce rescued him.
It was Nobunaga who first treated him not as a slave but a human being for the first time in his life where he had been sold from hand to hand so far.
Nobunaga was miraculously rescued because Yasuke had sworn that he could sacrifice his life to be of any help to Nobunaga.
Therefore, Nobunaga had been considering his life as excess, which was the biggest factor for him to have done many tasks.
"Summon Floyce and Yasuke to Constantinople!" Nobunaga ordered Yukinaga at Topkapi Palace.
Usual communication between Constantinople and Japan would need a year.
Moreover it would take more than a year to come to Constantinople.
Nobunaga was a substantial ruler of Persia, India, China and one third of Europe, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea from Turkey to Persia.
The facilities of communication to Japan were set up regardless border.
His order could reach in 15 days compared with a year as he, in advance, had equipped every country he had conquered with more precise and longer-range beacon system than before.
Moreover, he already had high-speed steamships.
"It will take about 55 days: five days from Osaka to Shanghai, 20 days Shanghai to Calcutta, 10 days Calcutta to Khorramshahr of the Persian Gulf on the high-speed ship, and 10 days Khorramshahr to Beirut and 10 days Beirut going north to Constantinople by the Mediterranean Sea by land. 70 days at the longest estimate.
It should be conveyed to Floyce by April 20 if raising a beacon right now.
They will arrive at Constantinople in the middle of July if they leave Osaka early in May. I$B!G(Bll entrust my usual duty to them before I go out to the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Sea and go on to the North Sea, there during this year, we$B!G(Bll launch a decisive battle against England"
He admitted Constantinople for being important historically and geographically while he was going around the city.
He had been moving from Kiyosu castle to Gifu, from Gifu to Azuchi and from Azuchi to Osaka castle.
He was confident that the Naniwa district with Osaka castle or the Owari district with Kiyosu castle was the most valuable place, the navel of Japan.
Major countries and cities in the world are usually in plains of delta area where a big river pours into sea.
Compared to a human body, it is the part of the shoulder joint.
The cradle of the world civilization is always such kind of place.
In Japan, there are only three areas.
The two out of them are Osaka and Owari.
Then, the other is Musashino in the Kanto plain.
Nobunaga looked around Constantinople with his own eyes and found a reason why the city had been chosen as a capital even if the dynasties or the governments had changed.
It connects the huge Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, also the Bosporus Strait.
From old times, animals in addition to human beings, i.e. land animals, had been moving for water and competing for secure places.
The countries that didn$B!G(Bt face sea had always been fighting to seek an exit to sea.
This is because those who got a geographically important place, the shoulder joint, would prosper.
He found that various religions would prosper in such an area and determined to call Floyce when he saw St. Sofia mosque in the center of Constantinople.
The Ottoman Empire was Islamic but the former Eastern Roman Empire was Christian.
Constantinople where the two big religions coexisted was valuable beyond religion.
After all, religion was the same as state control.
Then, he was convinced of the cause why he had felt distrust and inconsistency toward religions.
"Religion is valuable, but it corrupts if it becomes an organization, " he thought.
"The bigger the organization becomes, the further the intention of the pure religion strays off. Floyce is entirely different from corrupt priests in Japan so he must understand it. I have to teach him, " Nobunaga wanted to see Floyce and Yasuke soon.
He received a report of that Floyce and Yasuke had left Japan on April 30.
"They will arrive in the end of June, so we must prepare for the decisive battle until then," he told Yukinaga.
Yukinaga was glad to hear that Yasuke would come soon since Yasuke was his favorite.
"Yasuke used to tell me that there is only our lord in the world who can rescue blacks from the tragedy of the African Black," said Yukinaga.
"He is blessed with abilities that you three have. He is patient like Ieyasu, adaptable to any circumstances like Hideyoshi and pious like you, " Nobunaga said in an admonitory manner. "He could be the most powerful enemy for me."
Yukinaga admired Nobunaga$B!G(Bs free idea without prejudice.
"Why did you call Yasuke?" Yukinaga asked.
"If the various countries in his home, Africa, are released after winning the battle against England, Yasuke would be the last winner, wouldn$B!G(Bt he? I came all the way over here for Yasuke," Nobunaga replied and fixed his eyes in a distance.
"For now, you cannot but let yourself in on a victory for him," said Yukinaga laughing.
"Absolutely," said Nobunaga also with a smile.
Yukinaga believed that Nobunaga$B!G(Bs smile reflected the bottom of his heart and nobody could understand him if the bottom was too deep.
"By the way, what do you think of the battle against England?" Nobunaga asked Yukinaga.
Yukinaga was surprised to hear Nobunaga.
Nobunaga had never asked their opinion from his vassals about fights.
Yukinaga had no idea how to answer.
"What do you think Gorabchi says?" Nobunaga asked the opinion of others again.
"What$B!G(Bs the matter, my lord? You have never asked our opinion so far," said Yukinaga.
"I have been doing a lot of fights and always asked myself what I should do. But I have been ready for dead, " Nobunaga answered with a smile to sigh.
"I have never been afraid of death. Consequently, I could win since I had got inspiration of intellectual strategy beyond my knowledge. How can I ask something I don$B!G(Bt know what to do with? A commander must be the strongest and smartest warrior. This is the inviolable rule for a leader."
"Why, this time, do you ask the vassal who is far inferior to you in every aspect, my lord?" asked Yukinga persistently.
"Because there is no Nobunaga anymore. A human being is the most excited when his goal is far ahead and feels empty when it faces him," answered Nobunaga, gazing in a distance again.
"I see, I$B!G(Bll consult with Gorabchi," Yukinaga left the room.
Chapter(7)-2 The burst between manic and depressive
Nobunaga sometimes shows symptoms of depression by nature.
When he is heading straight toward a goal, both his head and body are full of life.
Though there will be the last battle against England, he can$B!G(Bt have much mettle.
"I don$B!G(Bt know why I got such feeling, but I remember having similar feeling before. What is that? "
His father, Nobuhide came to his mind while he was recollecting his past.
"I can recall the time when my father died, but it must be something related father. I have no idea. "
Preparation for the battle has steadily proceeded by Yukinaga and Gorabchi.
This time will be a naval fight.
The number of battleships and the performance of the battle decide the fate.
The ship used in Pochi along the eastern coast of the Black Sea was a transport vessel.
300 ships Hideyoshi adapted from Dubai to Calcutta were battleships of iron.
It should take about four to five months to carry ships to the Mediterranean Sea.
Yukinaga and Gorabuchi are worried about whether they would build a new ship in Alexandria or Pochi.
They have already learned by Nobunaga that the battle would not a war with quantity but quality.
It is the best to build a ship in Alexandria on that point.
Moreover, there are Egyptians who had a shipbuilding skill from old days.
Everyday they discuss the plan.
"The issue is how many ships, which level we need. Anyway, let$B!G(Bs set about shipbuilding in Alexandria. 100 ships that are three times as large as the battleship in Dubai equipped with a quintuple number of guns. "
They drew a conclusion and went to Nobunaga to get permission.
As they explained timidly, Nobunaga gave permission without saying anything.
"My lord, Nobunaga has changed recently, " murmured Yukinaga.
Floyce and Yasuke caught their eyes while they were leaving Topkapi with a sigh of relief as their opinion was accepted.
"Hey, guys, you have just arrived. You must be exhausted after a long journey. You$B!G(Bll see the lord, Nobunaga, won$B!G(Bt you?" Yukinga asked them, the two nodded.
The foursome went to Nobunaga to the palace again.
Nobunaga saw faces of Floyce and Yasuke to show his smile after a long time.
"Thank you for coming. I$B!G(Bm sure you had a harsh travel. Relax and rest for today," Nobunaga said showing consideration for them.
But something was strange with Floyce.
Nobunaga stopped them as they were leaving.
"Is there some kind of problem in Japan, Floyce? About Hideyoshi, right?"
They returned to Nobunaga again; Yukinga and Gorabchi also followed
Yasuke began to talk because Floyce kept silent.
"Hideyoshi moved into Fushimi castle after he became a deputy of state. He is now living in the lap of luxury such as a gold plated teahouse."
Nobunaga didn$B!G(Bt change much of his face to hear Yasuke and just thought.
"Well, that monkey is pushing his luck."
"I don$B!G(Bt care about Hideyoshi living in Fushimi, but who is living in Osaka castle?" asked Nobunaga.
Osaka castle is the center of the government of Japan for Nobunaga.
He has believed that Hideyoshi lives in Fushimi castle because of regard to him.
"What did you say, Yasuke?"
Nobunaga looked fierce like a devil as before.
"The deputy of state, Hideyoshi opened the Shogunate in Fushimi. I was asked my opinion of building Fushimi castle but didn$B!G(Bt oppose definitely. I must have told him your idea at that time. I should have opposed," Floyce pleaded for Hideyoshi.
He, however, began to talk about the discrimination policy by Hideyoshi including Ishikawa Goemon$B!G(Bs case that he couldn$B!G(Bt endure because he had been discriminated against as a black as well as a slave.
Nobunaga noticed he was getting red with anger.
"What a low creature! That monkey has never thought of his roots," Nobunaga was outraged.
Yukinaga and Gorabchi felt sort of relieved to see his face with anger and thought that Nobunaga was back to usual.
"Yukinga, Gorabchi! Come again tomorrow to review what Yasuke mentioned now"
Said Nobunaga decidedly.
"You all dismissed."
They left timidly.
He couldn$B!G(Bt calm down even after he was alone.
Suddenly, however, he found out the cause of his previous depression; he came to himself.
When his father, Nobuhide died, his rage against the father and vassals welled up within Nobunaga as a boy.
"Rage, righteous indignation has led me here," he perceived.
It is the anger that stimulates people to go into action.
Especially strong indignation causes the strongest energy.
It is essential of human beings to have anger.
Even if we look calm in appearance, the energy of a rage will explode some time since it is just restrained.
The energy of feelings gradually breaks out when the energy of a rage explodes.
Therefore, the hotter the rage is, the warmer the heart is.
Nobunaga is the model.
As for people who suppress their rage, the energy of love doesn$B!G(Bt well up.
Ieyasu is the model.
People who neither let the energy of a rage explode nor suppress it and change it into his profit cleverly and also cajole others.
Hideyoshi is the model.
Chapter(7)-3 The Negro leader Yasuke
Nobunaga called the four the next day.
He announced that he would appoint Yasuke to the archon of Constantinople and Floyce should make the religion and culture of Turkey reach the level as Europe.
Yasuke was astounded but the other three fully consented.
Particularly, Floyce went into raptures.
In Japan, he had nothing for it but to do his work against his will because he had to follow instructions of the Portuguese government.
"Well, Floyce, the so-called religion is living in the individual inside, isn$B!G(Bt it?" Nobunaga asked.
"Why do you want to popularize the teachings? I suspect there is some kind of problem in your motive for the propagation. You honestly want to tell a lot of people the teachings of the god of Zeus, don$B!G(Bt you? However, it is your business.
Japan has its own climate and so do China, India and here, Turkey. It is not reasonable to bind all climates with one thought. You understand what I mean. You must teach the essence of religion, the faith, to each one of the people here. Religion as business is not necessary."
Floyce was admonished and deeply impressed by Nobunaga.
"Well, Yukinaga, Gorabchi, I will defeat England by the end of this year. We won$B!G(Bt fight on the sea but land on Britain Island and make the capital, London yield. I will give you a strategy now, so get started immediately on the preparation."
They shuddered to hear Nobunaga.
"How do the construction of a railroad and steam trains go?" Nobunaga asked Gorabchi.
"It is completed to Prague, on this side of Austria, which the Hapsburg family dominates. If we get the cooperation with the Hapsburgs that are influential with the Bourbons, it can be finished to the Strait of Dover facing England by the end of this year."
"Well, set about negotiating diplomatic relations with the Hapsburgs and the Bourbons soon. Make the Bourbons build a large-sized carrying vessel and a battleship to cross the Strait of Dover with one million soldiers. But, well, there is one problem: the Bourbons do not like a fight. Use the carrot-and-stick. " Nobunaga directed them. "Well, that monkey would be the most suitable man!"
Gorabchi originally comes from the Persian aristocracy, the patriarch of Rasht that is closely related to the Bourbons in France.
However the relations between the Bourbons and the Victorians in England is also close.
The Hapsburgs is in the same situation.
Every family is related by marriage to each other to keep their dynasty for long.
Still, it is just to keep their dynasty.
For Nobunaga, it is a chance.
"You tell both that the Hapsburgs can have the central Europe and the Bourbons can have England and the Espana kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, then conclude a treaty!" Nobunaga instructed Gorabchi. "This is a big role, isn$B!G(Bt it, Gorabchi?"
"You mean they really dominate? "
Gorabchi reciprocated with dissatisfaction.
"No, no, they are all tarred with same brush. Once beat England, they are only a no-head chicken making fuss. So, let the greedy bastards feed on one another!"
Gorabchi felt the importance of his responsibility at the same time that he was moved to know that Nobunaga still had compassion on the weak.
Chapter(8)-1 The moral story
A messenger from Gorabchi has returned.
The railroad of the steam train has been already completed from Constantinople to Vienna, Prague, Zagreb, Berlin and Frankfurt.
A little way on, it comes to Paris.
Gorabchi has been negotiating with the Hapsburgs and the Bourbons, coming and going on the locomotives.
The report stated that the both houses practically agreed.
The railroad crucially triggered their decision.
A steam locomotive was invented in England but they didn$B!G(Bt recognize the importance of a railway system since it was an island country.
For the nations in the continent, it would have a serious effect on their economic activity in the future to have a railroad.
They felt a menace of the superb foresight of Nobunaga who was quick to build a railway system seeing into its importance.
"Well, we should leave for Constantinople on December 1st. Then one million of army lands in Britain Island on December 20 across the Strait of Dover. Tell the Hapsburgs and the Bourbons they should just watch quietly, and tell Gorabchi to have a party every evening with them. I$B!G(Bll send them big news that Nobunaga has defeated England, " Nobunaga was convinced that the victory was already in his hand.
Setting out on December 1, one million troops were indeed like those of what is now called the World War I itself in the 20th century.
As much as 300 years ago, Nobunaga changed a usual war with the image of walking Crusade into a modern one for the first time in the world.
He overturned a theory that navigation technology decides the nation$B!G(Bs fate.
Even though England was leading in sailing technology, they were no match for Nobunaga$B!G(Bs 300- year-advanced sense of innovation.
Crossing the Strait of Dover on the huge transport vessel the Bourbons prepared, Nobunaga$B!G(Bs troops landed in Britain Island on December 20.
That reminds of the Allied Forces landing in Normandie at the World War II.
When the troops landed in Britain Island, the game was decided in the same way as when the Allied Forces landed in Normandie.
Scotland and Ireland, which had been dominated and distressed so far by the Kingdom of England, also attacked England.
They were quite relentless in attacking.
Even Nobunaga could not stop them.
"What a horrible power the human hatred has to be cruel to the same human beings," he sighed over the foolishness of human beings.
Finally he landed in London with one million soldiers.
The troops of Scotland and Ireland did welcome him.
In front of the Buckingham Palace, Nobunaga ordered Yukinaga and Gorabchi to prepare a platform for speech.
They couldn$B!G(Bt get a point, but made their vassal do so.
Nobunaga felt keenly the cruelty of England so far, seeing the revenge on England by the soldiers.
However, it wasn$B!G(Bt allowed let them continue the revenge anymore.
Therefore, he decided to make a speech especially to the English public as well as the soldiers.
Indeed, he had expected, for a long time, to make a speech after invading England to conquer London, yet he accelerated the speech, with witnessing the large number of the people who felt animosity toward England.
He had concerned that more innocent people would be harmed.
More than 100 thousand people gathered to see Nobunaga standing on the platform.
They all held their breath to see what would happen next.
On the platform he called Yasuke to stand beside him as an interpreter as he had sent for Yasuke for the role.
Nobunaga$B!G(Bs speech started.
"I am Nobunaga coming all the way from Japan.
My troops left Japan and spent more than eight years to advance against this final destination, England, invading China, India, Persia and Turkey.
We have tried hard to make these countries be an independent nation ruled by the people.
It was to rescue the people suffering former tyrannical rulers.
Human beings are born with a mission and we must not forget the fact that what a person with a mission to rule a country should take care of most are the people.
When the person forgets the mission, the people will suffer and the country itself will decline after all.
The people are the root of a nation.
A person who rules a state is a public servant of the people. That is basics as a nation.
However, there are a lot of states in the world but there is none that is managing a nation according to these basics.
Animals are divided into the strong and the weak, as well as human beings are divided into the strong and the weak.
There are numerous animals that the strong prey the weak, but exploiting is only among us, human beings.
A law of nature made the dispensation that the weak are lot in number and the strong are few.
It is the evidence that the law of nature doesn$B!G(Bt permit exploiting the weak.
When the strong exploit the weak, the species is to be extinct in the end.
These various countries we have invaded were all exploitative nations but fortunately they exploited only the people in their own country.
However, the countries in this Europe exploited the people even in other countries and, in view of that, they have boasted the prosperity of their nation. This is a devilish act of deceiving God.
It is definitely unforgivable that the white people believe they are the best, so despise the colored people, persecute them and after all handle them like brutes. That happens among the people, in the countries that were dispensed by God based on environment and climate.
I am here now to punish those countries, and this England is the last one.
Here I declare now.
Africa, Asia and a lot of other weak nations are today release to be free from the European countries that have exploited them.
In particular, I give a strict order.
Any kind of state is never permitted to treat human beings with a black skin in Africa as a slave.
This man called Yasuke has a black skin but an extremely capable man, so he has become a new governor in Turkey.
He is the first step to recover justice the human society lacks most."
Nobunaga got off the platform amid a storm of applause.
It was a declaration of new human restoration.
Yasuke$B!G(Bs eyes were glistening with tears.
The applause didn$B!G(Bt cease for a long time.
Chapter(8)-2 The sense of Nobunaga$B!G(Bs morality
The declaration of human restoring by Nobunaga was conveyed to the European countries.
The Hapsburgs and the Bourbons perceived that concluding a treaty had made them be in the same level as England after all when they listened to his speech in London.
They believed that they had taken Nobunaga Japan into the imperialism they had been sticking to so far.
However, Nobunaga$B!G(Bs intention was definitely different from their standard of value.
It is usual for ordinary people to mistake other$B!G(Bs idea for his idea.
Still, the standard doesn$B!G(Bt apply to the people who recognize that they are selected to receive a great mission by nature.
It is the point that ordinary people can$B!G(Bt understand.
Nobunaga had been misunderstood ever since his childhood.
Even his parents or brother could neither understand him, nor could his vassals.
Nobunaga realized that to be understood by others was to do something convenient for them when he was a boy.
Therefore, he had always repelled.
He had believed temporizing was the worst vice.
"Monkey Hideyoshi has, at last, done what I hate most. That monkey is just polishing an apple," Nobunaga mumbled.
He returned to Japan in June 1592 for the first time in two years.
Hideyoshi was at the port in the Yodo estuary in Osaka to see Nobunaga.
Hideyoshi could be found from the ship since he dressed in a gaudy Japanese short coat that caught the eyes from distance.
"Did monkey lose sight of himself?" Nobunaga was disgusted.
It was even better for him to assume the same attitude as before toward Nobunaga.
If he did so, there was still possibility to recover.
Then, Nobunaga decided something.
He had instructed Hideyoshi and Ieyasu beforehand to come to see him.
They approached as Nobunaga got off the ship.
When Hideyoshi, at first, stepped up to him ahead of Ieyasu, Nobunaga vented his rage on Hideyoshi.
"Step back! How can you, just my vassal, ignore my partner Ieyasu? What an insolent bastard!"
Hideyoshi turned pale drawing back.
Ieyasu, who was standing beside Hideyoshi gracefully in a quiet short coat, bowed to Nobunaga.
"Well, Ieyasu, I have heard that you built a city called Edo in Musashino. I have been teaching this foolish monkey about the importance of Osaka and Owari but never gave you only a piece of advice. You are very smart to have your eyes on Musashino." Nobunaga looked into his face.
"This silly monkey is just imitating me. I can still tolerate him building Fushimi castle because he didn$B!G(Bt know himself. But it is a capital crime that putting a sense of discrimination into the mind of the people of the castle town. This monkey executed a chivalrous thief, Ishikawa Goemon, from jealousy of his popularity and, moreover, punished the people, who had protected him, even their families, relatives and also branded them as criminals. Monkey is far more wicked than hypocritical priests.
Well, Ieyasu, you should take up politics and respect the Emperor in Edo."
Nobunaga directed his follower to take out something prepared in advance.
A crowd of people had gathered at the harbor to see Nobunaga watching them.
"All folks! You have listened to me. Do not judge people from birth, figure and skin color," Nobunaga cried out and gave a signal to his vassal.
A huge caldron filled with boiling water and then Hideyoshi was thrown into it.
Even Ieyasu was astonished to death.
However, he knew that Nobunaga implicitly warned him as well.
Returning to Osaka castle, Nobunaga was alone remembering.
"It was exactly 10 years ago when I was almost dead. I have lived the extra 10 years, that is enough."
Nobunaga went up to the castle tower and danced Atsumori.
"Human life is only fifty years. Walking around the earth, all the things happening seem like a dream. Everything will disappear after all."
Nobunaga put a period to his life for 59 years.
A faint light pierced darkly fading consciousness.
"God exists as expected."
At the end
As I mentioned in the foreword, I dared to write this story on my boldness and hopeful prospect.
The historical fact is that Nobunaga encountered a betrayal at Honnooji Temple and committed suicide.
However, I can imagine how he thought, how he lived and how he saw the world as well as Japan if he could have survived.
Especially, Nobunaga$B!G(Bs outlook on life is truly expressed in Atsumori, "Human life is only fifty years. Walking around the earth, all the things happening seem like a dream. Everything will disappear after all."
I am sure that he must have identified his way of life but not have exposed such shameful behavior as some leaders of Japan these days, suppose that he had survived who was always conscious of the pessimism.
Therefore, I wrote it imagining how he lived for limited 10 years from his 49 years old to 59 although he died at 49.
Formerly, in Japan they said the age of 42 was the unlucky year for men as the average life span was supposed 50 years.
But the second half of our 50s is thought to be a truly unlucky year at the time when the average life expectancy is about 80 years in the present Japan.
On that point, indeed, the age of 59 is the time of a wave to be highest for the men who live in the society of hardship.
In Japan some women are ranked higher these days, so the age of 59 can be also said to be the highest generation of rising waves for women.
I am greatly honored to know that this novel will be useful for you in considering how it is possible to plow over the waves of the time of chaos when you look over Nobunaga$B!G(Bs way of life for 10 years.
December 20, 2000 Satoshi Nitta